Elaboration of Underpinning Methods and Data Analysis Process of Directed Qualitative Content Analysis for Communication Studies

Rasha Alyaqoub (1), Ahmad Alsharairi (2), Muhammad Zammad Aslam (3)
(1) Faculty of Mass Communication, University of Petra, Amman, Jordan,
(2) Faculty of Media, Zarqa University, Zarqa, Jordan,
(3) School of Multimedia Technology and Communication, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Malaysia

Abstract

Directed qualitative content analysis (QCA) is a qualitative analysis method that has been recently explained and employed practically by a few researchers at the international level. They employed it deductively in most cases, primarily within qualitative research guidelines. In contrast to the inductive method, which starts with a general hypothesis and builds upon it as it gathers data, the deductive method, also known as the directed approach, researchers develop the categories and subcategories that guide their research based on an already established theory or theories. The present paper also explained this conceptual method in the context of the deductive approach. The purpose of deductive or directed QCA is to test, verify, or broaden the scope of the study’s underlying theory(s) by applying them to data collected from sources other than those directly relevant to its creation. Researchers employed deductive QCA in sixteen and seven steps in previous studies, respectively. Hence, this article proposes a four-step conceptual model deduced from the present researchers’ previous works and others’ previous studies to address the gaps above in the qualitative research tradition and achieve the same goals with the research data. We provide conceptual sample data in tables as examples for scholars interested in political communication who might use DQCA in their future studies.

Full text article

Generated from XML file

References

Aslam, M. Z. (2024). Elements of Transformational and Spiritual Leadership Communication in Imran Khan’s Speeches. (Doctoral dissertation). Universiti Utara Malaysia.

Aslam, M. Z., Yusof, N., & Ahmad, M. K. (2023). Characteristics of Spiritual Leadership Communication in Imran Khan's Speeches at International Forums. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 23(3), 56-67. https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v23i3.250

Aslam, M. Z., Alsharairi, A., Barzani, S. H. H., Alyaqoub, R., & Yusof, N. (2024). The social neuroscience of persuasion approach to the religious intercultural communication: A conceptual evidence from Sidhwa’s novel ‘An American Brat.’ Journal of Intercultural Communication, 24(2) 1-11. https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v24i2.629

Assarroudi, A., Heshmati Nabavi, F., Armat, M. R., Ebadi, A., & Vaismoradi, M. (2018). Directed qualitative content analysis: The description and elaboration of its underpinning methods and data analysis process. Journal of Research in Nursing, 23(1), 42-55. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1744987117741667

Avgerou, C. (2019). Contextual explanation: Alternative approaches and persistent challenges. MIS Quarterly, 43(3), 977–1006. https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.25300/MISQ/2019/13990

Berelson, B. (1952). Content analysis in communication research. Glenoce, IL: Free Press.

Cleary, M., Horsfall, J., & Hayter, M. (2014). Data collection and sampling in qualitative research: Does size matter? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 70(3), 473–475. http://handle.uws.edu.au:8081/1959.7/539327

Coyne, I. T. (1997). Sampling in qualitative research. Purposeful and theoretical sampling; merging or clear boundaries? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 26(3), 623–630. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.1997.t01-25-00999.x

Craig, R. T. (1999). Communication theory as a field. Communication Theory, 9(2), 119–161. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.1999.tb00355.x

Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2018). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Dance, F. E. X. (1970). The "concept" of communication. Journal of Communication, 20(2), 201-210. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1970.tb00877.x

Elo, S., & Kyngäs, H. (2008). The qualitative content analysis process. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62(1), 107-115. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04569.x

Elo, S., Kääriäinen, M., Kanste, O., Pölkki, T., Utriainen, K., & Kyngäs, H. (2014). Qualitative content analysis: A focus on trustworthiness. SAGE Open, 4(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244014522633

Fry, L. W. (2003). Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 693–727. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2003.09.001

Goldenberg, J., Libai, B., & Muller, E. (2001). Talk of the network: A complex systems look at the underlying process of word-of-mouth. Marketing Letters, 12(3), 211-223. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011122126881

Graneheim, U. H., & Lundman, B. (2004). Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: Concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Education Today, 24(2), 105-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2003.10.001

Gretzel, U., & de Mendonça, M. C. (2019). Smart destination brands: Semiotic analysis of visual and verbal signs. International Journal of Tourism Cities, 5(4), 560-580. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJTC-09-2019-0159

Haythornthwaite, C. (2002). Strong, weak, and latent ties and the impact of new media. The Information Society, 18(5), 385–401. https://doi.org/10.1080/01972240290108195

Hatcher, M. (1991). Transformational and spiritual leadership. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 9(1), 65–80. https://doi.org/10.1177/089801019100900109

Holsti, O. R. (1968). Content analysis. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), The Handbook of Social Psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 596–692). Addison-Wesley.

Hsieh, H. F., & Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 15(9), 1277-1288. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1049732305276687

Johnson, C. E., & Hackman, M. Z. (2018). Leadership: A communication perspective. Waveland Press.

Kibiswa, N. K. (2019). Directed qualitative content analysis (DQICA): A tool for conflict analysis. The Qualitative Report, 24(8), 2059-2079. https://doi.org/10.46743/2160-3715/2019.3778

Kyngäs, H. (2020). Qualitative research and content analysis. In M. Vaismoradi (Ed.), The application of content analysis in nursing science research (pp. 3–11). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30199-6_1

Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1990). Judging the quality of case study reports. Internation Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 3(1), 53–59. https://doi.org/10.1080/0951839900030105

Maxwell, J. A. (2012). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach. Sage Publications.

Mayring, P. (2000). Qualitative content analysis. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 1(2), Article 20. https://doi.org/10.17169/fqs-1.2.1089

Mayring, P. (2014). Qualitative content analysis: Theoretical foundation, basic procedures and software solution. Beltz.

Miller, G. R. (1966). On defining communication: Another stab. Journal of Communication, 16(2), 88-98. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1966.tb00020.x

Miller, R. M., Chan, C. D., & Farmer, L. B. (2018). Interpretative phenomenological analysis: A contemporary qualitative approach. Counselor Education and Supervision, 57(4), 240-254. https://doi.org/10.1002/ceas.12114

Mufwene, S. S., Coupé, C., & Pellegrino, F. (2017). Complexity in language: A multifaceted phenomenon. In S. S. Mufwene, C. Coupé, & F. Pellegrino (Eds.), Complexity in language: Developmental and evolutionary perspectives (pp. 1-29). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781107294264.001

Olurotimi, T. S. (2022). Semiotics: A transdisciplinary quest for meaning. International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Translation, 5(8), 117-124. https://doi.org/10.32996/ijllt.2022.5.8.14

Peluso, M. (2021). The functional approach, semiotics and professional discourse. Training, Language and Culture, 5(2), 62–72. https://doi.org/10.22363/2521-442X-2021-5-2-62-72

Peters, J. D. (1986). Institutional sources of intellectual poverty in communication research. Communication Research, 13(4), 527–559. https://doi.org/10.1177/009365086013004002

Polit, D., & Beck, C. (2020). Essentials of nursing research: Appraising evidence for nursing practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Rasool, U., Aslam, M. Z., Qian, J., & Barzani, S. (2022). The effects of online supervisory feedback on student-supervisor communications during the COVID-19. European Journal of Educational Research, 11(3), 1569-1579. https://doi.org/10.12973/eu-jer.11.3.1569

Rasool, U., Aslam, M. Z., Mahmood, R., Barzani, S. H. H., & Qian, J. (2023). Pre-service EFL teacher's perceptions of foreign language writing anxiety and some associated factors. Heliyon, e13405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e13405

Rasool, U., Qian, J., & Aslam, M. Z. (2023). An investigation of foreign language writing anxiety and its reasons among pre-service EFL teachers in Pakistan. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 8157. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.947867

Sandelowski, M. (1995). Sample size in qualitative research. Research in Nursing & Health, 18(2), 179-183. https://doi.org/10.1002/nur.4770180211

Schleifer, A. (2019). The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Jordan National Library.

Schleifer, A. (2020). The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Jordan National Library.

Schleifer, A. (2021). The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Jordan National Library.

Schleifer, A. (2022). The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Jordan National Library.

Schleifer, A. (2023). The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Jordan National Library.

Strauss, A. L. (1987). Qualitative analysis for social scientists. Cambridge University Press.

Suppiah, S. M., Ahmad, M. K., & Velloo, P. (2022). Tun Mahathir Mohamad's leadership communication as the essence of social change: What the Malaysian Hindus' opinion leaders say? Jurnal Komunikasi: Malaysian Journal of Communication, 38(3), 37-53. https://doi.org/10.1080/17475759.2019.1672575

Vaismoradi, M., Jones, J., Turunen, H., & Snelgrove, S. (2016). Theme development in qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 6(5), 6-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v6n5p100

Vaismoradi, M., Turunen, H., & Bondas, T. (2013). Content analysis and thematic analysis: Implications for conducting a qualitative descriptive study. Nursing & Health Sciences, 15(3), 398-405. https://doi.org/10.1111/nhs.12048

Zhang, Y., & Wildemuth, B. M. (2009). Qualitative analysis of content. In B. Wildemuth (Ed.), Applications of social research methods to questions in information and library science (pp. 308-319). Libraries Unlimited.

Authors

Rasha Alyaqoub
rasha.alyaqoub@uop.edu.jo (Primary Contact)
Ahmad Alsharairi
Muhammad Zammad Aslam
Author Biographies

Rasha Alyaqoub, Faculty of Mass Communication, University of Petra, Amman

Dr. Rasha Alyaqoub is an Assistant Professor and the Head of the Department of Journalism and Digital Media at the School of Mass Communication at the University of Petra. She earned her Bachelor of Arts (BA) and Master of Arts (MA) in Communications from Yarmouk University. Additionally, she obtained her PhD in Communication from Universiti Utara Malaysia. Dr Alyaqoub has been actively involved in teaching and research since 2020 at the University of Petra. Her research interests primarily revolve around the fields of public relations, online communication, and qualitative research methods

Ahmad Alsharairi, Faculty of Media, Zarqa University, Zarqa

Dr. Ahmad Alsharairi is an Assistant Professor at Faculty of Media, Zarqa University, Jordan. Ahmad holds a PhD in Communication, Malaysia, completed at the School of Multimedia Technology and Communication,  Universiti Utara Malaysia. His research interests include Online Communication and Media, Communication Behaviour, Public Relations, and Internal Communication.

Muhammad Zammad Aslam, School of Multimedia Technology and Communication, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok

Dr. Muhammad Zammad Aslam holds a Ph.D. from Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia. He also has a master’s degree in English (Linguistics and Literature) and a Master of Philosophy (English Linguistics) from the National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad. He is also a certified master trainer and an English language instructor. His research interests include Intercultural Communication, Political Communication, Spiritual and Transformational Leadership, Political Discourse Analysis, and Second Language Learning and Acquisition.

Alyaqoub, R., Alsharairi, A., & Aslam, M. Z. (2024). Elaboration of Underpinning Methods and Data Analysis Process of Directed Qualitative Content Analysis for Communication Studies. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 24(2), 108–116. https://doi.org/10.36923/jicc.v24i2.573

Article Details

Smart Citations via scite_