Uses of Mass Media for Adaptation Purposes: A Quantitative Study of Brazilian Immigrants in Los Angeles

Raul Reis

California State University Long Beach - USA

Abstract

This research project used a survey to assess the impact of English- and Portuguese-language mass media on how Brazilian immigrants in the Los Angeles area adapt to their new environment. In addition to mass media use, the survey also took into account cultural preferences, language fluency, and demographics as possible predictors of cultural adaptation for Brazilian immigrants in a large and multicultural metropolitan area of the United States. Hypotheses were tested by using bivariate correlations to determine the relationships between the independent (language, media use, demographics) and dependent (cultural adaptation) variables. In addition, a discussion of intercultural communication and some characteristics of the Brazilian community are provided.

Keywords: Brazilians, immigration, United States, acculturation, adaptation, mass media


1. Introduction

This research project used a survey to assess how Brazilian immigrants in the Los Angeles area use English and Portuguese-language mass media for adaptation purposes. Decades of intercultural communication research have shown that several factors influence the way immigrants adapt to a new host culture. Among those, interpersonal interactions and mass media use, analyzed either together or separately, seem to be equally important factors in determining adaptation patterns (Walker 1999). For this study, a survey was developed to assess how the use of ethnic and host mass media contribute to the way Brazilian immigrants in a large and multicultural metropolitan area such as Los Angeles adapt to life in the United States. In addition to mass media use, cultural preferences, language fluency, and demographics were also taken into account as possible predictors of cultural adaptation. The author used bivariate correlations to test the hypotheses and determine the relationship between language, media use and demographics (independent variables) and cultural adaptation (dependent variable). The first section of the paper examines and summarizes some of the current debates in intercultural communication research. The article goes on to look at some of the characteristics of the Brazilian immigrant community in Los Angeles. Subsequent sections examine some of the factors that may affect the way members of that community adapt to life in a new country. Those factors include mass media use, language fluency, demographics, and cultural preferences. A methodology section explains why certain variables were chosen to be analyzed, how the survey was constructed, and how variables were aggregated in order to produce the indexes that were employed to test the hypotheses. Subsequent sections present and discuss the results found.

2. Description and Background

2.1 Intercultural Communication

This study fits into a long research tradition in intercultural communication. Scholars have tried to outline different theories and models to explain how recent immigrants use mass media to adapt to their new host country. It has been argued that when cultures and subcultures interact, they (not always peacefully) negotiate meanings and values in a way that facilitates co-existence, adaptation and, eventually, mutual cooperation. The degrees of interaction between dominant and minority cultures would go from the simple diffusion of innovations (a single artifact or cultural practice is adopted by the "receiving" culture) to cultural domination (a whole set of beliefs, norms and cultural values is imposed by the dominant to the minority culture). In the case of contact resulting from immigration, one might encounter cultural processes occurring in intermediary stages, such as acculturation, assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization.

Acculturation, for one, is an umbrella term that encompasses the different processes (and stages) resulting from the contact between two different cultural groups. As defined by Berry (1989), acculturation happens "when two independent groups come into continuous first-hand contact over an extended period of time, resulting in changes in either or both cultural groups" (186). Most studies examining acculturation processes (Y. Kim 1977; J. Kim 1980; Berry, Kim, & Boski 1988; Choi & Tamborini 1988; Berry 1989) either assume or conclude that minority groups tend to be more affected by the process than the dominant culture. Berry (1989) states that there are two main issues which groups and individuals have to face in the acculturation process: Desirability of contact with the other group, and desirability of maintenance of the groupís own cultural heritage.

In each case, groups and individuals would have to answer the questions: "Is it considered to be of value to maintain contact with other groups?" and "Is it considered to be of value to maintain cultural identity and characteristics?" By answering yes or no to those questions, the acculturation process could take four different routes: assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization.

Assimilation happens when the group (or individual) does not value retention of its own identity, but instead values assimilation of the other groupís values. Integration happens when the group considers both identities equally important. Separation means considering important oneís own culture, but avoiding contact with other groups. And marginalization refers to saying no to your own culture, as well as to the host culture. Immigrant groups have provided researchers with a myriad of patterns and cultural characteristics that exemplify all of the acculturation routes outlined here. The difference in acculturation patterns has been related to education, socioeconomic status, mastery of the host language, and consumption of both ethnic and host mass media. Young Yun Kim (1977), for example, surveyed Korean immigrants in the Chicago area, and found that language competence, acculturation motivation, and channel accessibility (both interpersonal interaction potential and mass media availability) are mediated and influenced by mass communication experiences. Berry et al. (1988, 1989) reached similar conclusions when analyzing the acculturation of immigrants in Canada and Australia. In recent years, researchers have tried to adopt a more systemic and holistic approach to the acculturation process, even replacing the term acculturation, which they perceive as loaded with ethnocentric implications, for the more neutral adaptation (Walker 1999, referring mostly to the work done by Y.Y. Kim). This more systemic and integrated approach allows researchers to analyze adaptation as an ongoing process that relies heavily but not exclusively on communication patterns (mediated or otherwise). Likewise, a growing body of literature questions the traditional bipolar acculturation scale, which places individuals at low or high ends of a continuum that has been constructed based on maintenance/loss of ethnic identity, as opposed to adoption/identification of host cultural characteristics. Kim, Laroche and Tomiuk (2001), for example, referring mostly to the work done by Felix-Ortiz de la Garza, Newcomb and Myers (1995) with Latin American immigrant populations, point out that "acquisition of host culture traits does not necessarily involve a corresponding loss of ethnic identity" (610).

Based on that observation, it could be likewise argued that traditional acculturation models ignore a growing trend of biculturalism or multiculturalism in immigrant populations, especially present in Latin American groups living in essentially multiethnic areas such as New York, Miami and Los Angeles.

2.2 Brazilians in Southern California The Brazilian government estimated in 2009 that 1.28 million Brazilian nationals lived in the United States (Ministério das Relações Exteriores 2009). Of those almost 1.3 million Brazilian immigrants, 52,000 were estimated to be living under the jurisdiction of the Brazilian Consulate in Los Angeles, which covers L.A. and Orange counties, in addition to other Southern California counties and a few Western states. Results for the official 2000 U.S. Census, however, indicated that only a little over 7,200 Brazilian nationals lived in Los Angeles and Orange counties (U.S. Census Bureau 2000). Population growth between 2000 and 2009 accounts for some of that discrepancy, but factors such as fear of replying to official census information (due to irregular immigration status, for example), may help to explain the much lower census numbers. In addition, while the Brazilian government uses data such as visits and registration at consular offices, as well as local media reports and academic studies to arrive at its estimated numbers, the U.S. government only uses official data provided through census surveys. The Brazilian immigrant population of Southern California is spread throughout Los Angeles, Orange and San Diego counties, with cities and towns such as Torrance, Venice Beach, Santa Monica, Long Beach, San Diego and Newport Beach accounting for most of that groupís residents. As opposed to what happens in metropolitan areas such as Boston, Miami and New York, where most Brazilian immigrants are concentrated in neighborhoods that have become known as "Little Brazil", no one area in Southern California can claim the distinction of being the focal point of the Brazilian community. Instead, Brazilians are spread out through the area, and in some ways more integrated into the communities where they live, especially in and around beach communities and towns from Los Angeles to San Diego. Similarly, Brazilian restaurants, supermarkets, travel agencies, martial arts centers and nightclubs may be found throughout Southern California, but those establishments are far from being clustered around one particular location.

In terms of ethnic Brazilian media, Brazzil Magazine, Pelourinho and Brazil TV are the most well known local mass communication vehicles for the Brazilian community in Southern California. Founded in 1989, Brazzil Magazine was published monthly until 2004, when it became an online only publication. Its web site covers everything related to Brazilian culture in the area, with special attention to politics and culture. According to the publicationís data, the web site is visited daily by 11,000 unique visitors, 53 percent of them living in the United States. Started in 1996, Pelourinho is a web site and blog that also has become an important media vehicle for the Brazilian community in Southern California. The site/blog focuses mainly on cultural events and topics, and is updated daily. According to its own data, the site boasts 7.4 million hits per month and has 13,000 subscribers receiving its weekly email newsletter. Brazil TV is a freelance video production company providing clips such as interviews and news coverage of live events to broadcast, cable and Internet-based video services. In addition to these local Brazilian mass media, Brazilian communities in the area may also subscribe to Globo TVís international broadcast services for cable or satellite distribution, and to U.S.-based Brazilian newspapers published in cities such as Boston, New York and Miami. The Brazilian Times and Brazilian Voice are two of those newspapers.

As mentioned earlier, Brazilian immigrants donít really stand out as a distinct group in Southern California. As opposed to what happens with more populous and vocal immigrant communities in the area, such as the Vietnamese, Cambodians or Mexican-Americans, Brazilians seem to be spread out and in some ways more integrated into the larger community. Maybe for that reason, the group has not yet been the targeted of many formal academic studies.

In her ethnographic study of Brazilian immigrant communities in the Los Angeles area, Beserra (2000) discovered that being married to an American national, and "moving up" on the socio-economic ladder were the two most relevant predictors of positively adapting into the U.S. mainstream culture, a contested process Beserra called Americanization. In one of the other few published adaptation studies focusing on Brazilian immigrant communities, Becker (1993) found out that the longer Brazilian immigrants stayed in Japan, the closer their cultural maps would be to the cultural maps of Japanese nationals. According to her study, time in Japan was the number one predictor of positive adaptation, while having a Brazilian spouse was the number one predictor of resistance to adaptation.

It is relevant to note that, despite those and other studies focusing on Brazilian immigrants, such as Maxine Margolisís "Little Brazil" (1993) for example, no previous studies have yet paid attention to the intersection of mass media and adaptation patterns for this important immigrant group.

2.3 Use of Mass Media

Authors have noted that access to the host cultureís mass media can be a very relevant variable in the adaptation process. Through mass media use, immigrants "learn about the broader range of host cultural elementsóthey are exposed to the cultureís aspirations, traditions, history, myths, art, work, play, and humor, as well as current issues and events" (Y. Kim 2001:131). Walker (1999) found that Haitian immigrants in Miami who heavily used both host and ethnic media, whom he called information-seekers, "tended to have better communication skills and a more positive view of their future in the United States" (185). On the other hand, Hwang and He (1999) found that heavy use of readily available Chinese-language media was partially to blame for recent Chinese immigrantsí low acculturation levels in Silicon Valley (16). These conflicting findings led to the first research question: (RQ1): How important is the use of host (English-language) and ethnic (Portuguese-language) mass media as a predictor of adaptation among Brazilian immigrants in Los Angeles? Since some of the recent studies seem to be providing contradictory results, this first research question led to three related hypotheses: (H1A): The greater the immigrantís use of ethnic mass media, the lower his or her adaptation level to mainstream culture; (H1B): The greater the immigrantís use of host mass media, the higher his or her adaptation level to mainstream culture; (H1C): The greater the immigrantís use of both host and ethnic mass media, the greater his or her adaptation level to mainstream culture.

2.4 Language skills

The concept of biculturalism briefly discussed earlier is closely associated with language skills, and the ability to speak, write, read and function in both host and ethnic language contexts. In their study of biculturalism as a predictor of social adjustment among Hispanic-American youths in Miami, Szapocznik, Kurtines and Fernandez (1980) developed an acculturation scale in which language skills was used almost interchangeably with degree of biculturalism (355). In their extensive review of acculturation literature, Kim, Laroche and Tomiuk (2001) found that language-related items appeared prominently in 46 of 50 adaptation measurement scales they evaluated, implying that linguistic dimensions are considered one of the primary determining factors for acculturation (612). Similarly, in Hwang and Heís study of Chinese immigrants in Silicon Valley (1999), respondents named English language ability as their number one "acculturation need," the skill they most highly identified with adapting to the new host culture (16). Likewise, more traditional studies such as the one done by Berry (1989) also identified language fluency (both host and ethnic) as the number one predictor of positive or negative adaptation (203). These findings led to the second research question: (RQ2): How important is language skills (mastery of both ethnic and host languages) as a factor in the adaptation process of Brazilian immigrants? Studies that followed a more traditional, bipolar view of acculturation tended to see ethnic language reliance as a negative predictor of assimilation. Berry (1989), for example, found that strong Hungarian language fluency and reliance was a relevant predictor of separation and marginalization among Hungarian-Canadians (203); Hwang and He (1999) concluded that their Chinese-speaking subjectsí heavy reliance on Chinese-language for communication purposes "enhance[d] resistance to acculturation" (19). On the other hand, in their study of Hispanic-American youths in Miami, Szapocznik, Kurtines and Fernandez (1980) concluded that biculturalism, measured mainly as comfort and skills in both ethnic and host languages, predicted a higher degree of social adjustment, as opposed to monoculturalism (fluency in either host or ethnic language, but not both) (363). These conflicting findings led to the following related hypotheses: (H2A): The greater the immigrantís English-language fluency, the greater his or her level of adaptation; (H2B): The greater the immigrantís Portuguese-language fluency, the lower his or her adaptation level; (H2C): The greater the immigrantís fluency in both Portuguese and English, the greater his or her level of adaptation.

2.5 Demographics

Based on the literature discussed so far, including some of the more systemic approaches to study immigrant adaptation, many other factors besides mass media use and language proficiency may be considered predictors of adaptation to the host culture. It is arguable that characteristics such as degree of social interaction, education, socioeconomic status, age, and length of residency will be relevant factors in determining levels of adaptation to the host U.S. culture by Brazilian immigrants. The final research question in this study relates to demographical characteristics:(RQ3): How important are demographic characteristics such as age, education, income, length of residency, and cultural background of spouse as predictors of acculturation?

2.6 Cultural Preferences

Factors such as desirability of contact and what can be qualified as personal "cultural preferences" or attitudes toward the host culture have been extensively used to determine immigrantsí level of adaptation. In the scales they developed for measuring the acculturation of Hispanic-American populations, G. Marin, Sabogal, F. Marin, Otero-Sabogal and Perez-Stable (1987) and Cuellar, Harris and Jasso (1980) reserved a prominent space for questions related to cultural preferences and desirability of contact or integration. For them, those factors were the primary determinants of acculturation. Szapocznik, Kurtines and Fernandez (1980) developed one of the best scales to measure cultural preferences of immigrant groups. Their questions were adapted for this research, and are better explained in the Methodology section.Those questions and scales reflect findings demonstrated by Kim, Laroche and Tomiuk (2001), who showed that "social interaction in host cultural environments also appears at the forefront of many measures" (612). They went on to say that, "Numerous [acculturation] studies assess preference toward and extent of association with members of host cultures and participation in clubs, societies, or organizations of the host culture as indicators of acculturation" (612).For the purpose of this study, cultural preferences and attitudes toward ethnic and host cultures were, together with the respondentsí enjoyment of ethnic and host mass media, the main determinants of adaptation (the construction of the questionnaire and indexes is better explained in the next section).

In her book "Becoming Intercultural" (2001), Young Yun Kim proposes an ambitious, integrative theory of cross-cultural adaptation that outlines six major dimensions of constructs that try to explain the various rates in which adaptation occurs. This research project used a survey to address only two of those dimensions, namely host social communication and ethnic social communication. Host social communication addresses uses of interpersonal and mass media communication from the perspective of the host culture, while ethnic social communication addresses those from the perspective of the ethnic group studied.

When outlining her theory, Y.Y. Kim calls particular attention to the fact that more studies are needed that systematically analyze the "evolving nature of cultural identity" (2001:209). My intention is that this study will be a first step in analyzing that evolving nature, as it applies to a Brazilian immigrant group.

3. Methodology

This study focuses on testing the above listed hypotheses by examining the relationship between the dependent variable (cultural adaptation) and the independent variables identified by other studies as the most likely to predict how immigrant communities adapt to a host culture (mass media use, language skills, age, education, length of residency, and economic status, among others). A 23-question survey was designed to measure the correlation between those variables. Besides demographic questions, the survey included seven questions related to host and ethnic language use and skills; two questions (each one with seven items) related to ethnic and host mass media enjoyment/preference; two questions (each with seven items) related to actual host and ethnic mass media use; and one question with ten items related to attitudes and preferences related to host and ethnic cultural practices and events (see appendices 1 and 2 for English and Portuguese versions of the survey). Since each variable being measured here was linked either to multiple survey questions or individual questions with multiple items, three indexes were created by aggregating and averaging those multiple answers from each respondent. Those indexes are explained below. Language index. Language use and ability questions included not only how respondents rated their own fluency, but also how often they communicate in both Portuguese and English in settings such as home and work, and how comfortable they felt communicating in those languages. Those were Likert scale items that asked respondents to self-evaluate their fluency and language use. Those questions were partially adapted from scales developed by G. Marin, Sabogal, F. Marin, Otero-Sabogal and Perez-Stable (1987) and Cuellar, Harris and Jasso (1980). A language index was created by computing the average of the seven language-related questions.Mass Media Use index. The two questions linked to mass media use contained each seven items related to different media or cultural activities (use of host and ethnic music, television, newspapers, etc). These questions were adapted from a model employed by Szapocznik, Kurtines and Fernandez (1980). Those were Likert scale questions that asked respondents to rate how much they actually used both ethnic and host mass media. A mass media use index was created by averaging the fourteen items in these two questions.Cultural Adaptation Index. Cultural preference questions asked respondents how much they wanted ethnic and host cultural activities such as food, language, music and celebrations to be Brazilian or American. Answers were presented in a scale that ranged from "I wish this to be completely Brazilian," to "I wish this to be completely American." (See question 23 in appendices 1 and 2.) These questions were adapted from a model employed by Szapocznik, Kurtines and Fernandez (1980). These ten cultural attitude questions were added to two questions about the respondentsí mass media enjoyment/preference (how much they like/enjoy Brazilian and American mass media), and their averages created the cultural adaptation index. The cultural adaptation index was the main dependent variable in this study. Hypotheses were tested by using bivariate correlations to determine the relationships between the independent (language, media use, demographics) and dependent (cultural adaptation) variables. SPSS version 12 was used to analyze the data. The author of this study is a Brazilian native and a native speaker of Brazilian Portuguese. The survey was conceptualize and written in English, and then translated into Portuguese. Two other U.S.-based, Portuguese-speaking researchers checked the English and Portuguese versions of the survey for accuracy. Respondents were given the choice to respond the questionnaire in English or Portuguese. Despite their varying levels of English fluency and length of residency, most respondents chose to fill in the Portuguese version of the survey. Sampling. A convenience sample of 121 respondents was used. All respondents were Brazilian nationals with very diverse demographical backgrounds, living in the Los Angeles area. Respondents were interviewed at two different cultural events for the Brazilian community, a celebration of the Brazilian independence day in the city of Long Beach (Los Angeles county), and a Brazilian cultural fair in the city of Garden Grove (Orange county). Participation was voluntary and did not involve remuneration.

4. Results

4.1 Mass Media Use

Hypotheses H1A, H1B and H1C tested possible correlations between mass media use and cultural adaptation. H1A predicted that the greater the immigrantís use of ethnic mass media, the lower his or her adaptation. Results showed a highly significant positive correlation between Brazilian media use and the cultural adaptation indexes (r=.261, p=.004), indicating that heavy Brazilian mass media use is actually a positive predictor of adaptation (and thus disproving the hypothesis). Hypothesis H1B predicted that the greater the immigrantís use of English-language media, the greater his or her adaptation level. That hypothesis was confirmed as stated (r=.438, p=.000). H1C combined both ethnic and host mass media use, and postulated that the greater the immigrantís use of mass media in general, the greater his or her adaptation. That hypothesis was also confirmed (r=.473, p=.000), leading the researcher to believe that heavy mass media users show a higher level of cultural adaptation, independent of the type of media consumed (ethnic or host).Table 1: Mass Media Use (n=121)

H1A

Ethnic media use = lower adapt.

r=.261

p=.004

NO

H1B

English media use = greater adapt.

r=.438

p=.000

YES

H1C

Any media use = greater adapt.

r=.473

p=.000

YES

4.2 Language Fluency

Hypotheses H2A, H2B and H2C referred to possible links between language fluency and cultural adaptation. H2A predicted that the greater the immigrantís English-language fluency, the greater his or her adaptation level. That hypothesis was confirmed, although not as strongly as the previous ones (r=.274, p=.002). Hypothesis H2B postulated that the greater the respondentís Portuguese-language fluency, the lower his or her adaptation level. Results disproved that hypothesis, and showed no correlation between the variables (r=.123, p=.179). H2C predicted a positive correlation between language fluency (either language) and cultural adaptation. That hypothesis was confirmed, although again not as strongly as the previous H1 hypotheses (r=.274, p=.002). Results indicated that host language fluency (English, in this case) and bilingualism are moderate positive predictors of acculturation.Table 2: Language Fluency (n=121)

H2A

English = greater adapt.

r=.274

p=.002

YES

H2B

Portuguese = lower adapt.

r=.123

p=.179

NO

H2C

Either = greater adapt.

r=.274

p=.002

YES

 

4.3 Demographic Factors

The third research question referred to demographic factors such as education, income and length of residency as predictors of cultural adaptation. Results showed that length of residency (years living in the United States) was a significant positive predictor of acculturation (r=.192, p=.035), while level of education (r=.149, p=.102) and household income (r=.111, p=.224) were not significantly correlated with cultural adaptation. Results also showed that gender itself was not significantly correlated with cultural adaptation (r=.111, p=.228). Likewise, the data showed no significant differences between the respondents who had an English-speaking spouse (N=19, mean=3.3544, st.dev.=.5482) and the group who didnít (N=96, mean=3.3697, st.dev.=.5841), when a t-test was applied correlating those means with cultural adaptation (t=.105, df=113, p=.916). Table 3: Demographics, Independent Variables

Length of stay

r=.192

p=.035

YES

n=121

 

Education

r=.149

p=.102

NO

n=121

 

Income

r=.111

p=.224

NO

n=121

 

Gender

r=.111

p=.228

NO

n=121

 

English-speaking spouse vs. No Eng.-speak. spouse

t=.105

df=113

NO

n=115

p=.916

5. Discussion

While most intercultural communication scholars agree that language fluency, host and ethnic mass media use, demographics, and desirability of adaptation are important factors predicting how well adapted immigrant groups are to their new host culture, there is still a lot of controversy surrounding just how positive or negative maintaining oneís language and cultural identity is for this process.

The results of this study seem to confirm a more recent trend in intercultural communicationóone that sees biculturalism (the ability to perform at a high level within both the host and the original cultures) as a positive predictor of cultural integration.

The first cluster of hypotheses, dealing with host and ethnic mass media use, showed, for example, that respondents who were high users of Brazilian mass media also had high cultural adaptation scores. This result goes against traditional views postulating that reliance on ethnic mass media marginalizes or separates immigrant groups from the mainstream culture, making it more difficult for them to adapt to their new environment. The results for this cluster strongly indicated the opposite: use of any mass media, ethnic or host, positively correlated to cultural adaptation.For this particular immigrant group, language fluency didnít seem to be a strong predictor of cultural adaptation or lack thereof. While mastery of English was a positive predictor of cultural adaptation, as originally hypothesized, the correlation didnít seem very strong. Fluency and daily use of Portuguese, on the other hand, was not seen as correlated at all to cultural adaptation, which also flies in the face of conventional wisdom and traditional studies. Mastery of both English and Portuguese, however, was a mild positive predictor of cultural adaptation, reinforcing the aforementioned comments related to the first cluster of hypotheses (mass media use).There were also some minor surprises in the results for the third cluster of questions (demographics). As expected, length of residency in the United States was a positive predictor of cultural integration. However, education, household income, and having an English-speaking spouse were not correlated to adaptation.

6. Conclusion

This study focused on the cultural adaptation of Brazilian immigrants in Southern California, and used a survey to measure the relationship between cultural integration (or the desirability for cultural integration) and independent variables such as language fluency, mass media use, and demographic factors. While more research is needed to establish a definitive trend in the way this adaptation process might be taking place, results from this survey seem to confirm more recent cultural adaptation studies, which tend to take a more holistic and complex view of immigrant acculturation. Heavy mass media use (either ethnic or host, or both), host language fluency, and bilingualism were the strongest positive predictors of cultural adaptation. Likewise, except for length of residency, demographical factors seemed to have no influence in the degrees of adaptation within this particular Brazilian immigrant community.

Future studies could use qualitative methods such as in-depth interviews and focus groups to assist in providing a more nuanced view of this complex adaptation process.

References

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APPENDIX 1: ENGLISH-LANGUAGE QUESTIONNAIRE

2. Gender: Male _____ Female _____
3. Age
: _____
4. Marital Status
:Single _____ Married _____Live-in partner _____ Separated _____ Widowed _____
5. Religion
: Catholic _____ Protestant _____Other Christian _____ Jewish _____Buddhist _____ Other/None _____
6. Last grade completed in school:Elementary (0-5) _____Middle (6-8) _____Some high school (9-10) _____High school (11-12) _____Some college (1-2) _____College (3-4) _____Graduate school _____
7. Profession:Administrative/Clerical _____Artistic/Musical _____Computer-related _____Construct./Blue collar/Manufact. _____Education/Academic/Research _____Financial/Real Estate/Sales _____Legal/Political/Government _____Medical/Health Services _____Science/Technical/Engineering _____Other ____________________
8. Annual Income (family average):Less than US$ 20,000 _____20,001-30,000 _____30,001-40,000 _____40,001-50,000 _____50,001-75,000 _____75,001-90,000 _____90,001-120,000 _____More than 120,000 _____
9. Years Living in the U.S.:Less than 12 months ____ 12-24 months _____2-3 years _____4-5 years _____6-8 years _____8-10 years _____10-14 years _____15-20 years _____More than 20 years _____
10. How often do you travel to Brazil?Never _____ Once every 5 years _____Once every 2-3 years _____Once a year _____ More than once a year _____
11. Living situation:Living alone _____With a Brazilian partner/spouse _____With an English-speaking spouse _____Living w/ Brazilian roommates _____With English-speaking roommates ____Living with both Brazilian & English-speaking roommates ______
12. What language(s) do you speak at home?Portuguese only _____Mostly Portuguese, some English _____Portuguese and English equally _____Mostly English, some Portuguese _____English only _____
13. What language(s) do you speak at work?Portuguese only _____Mostly Portuguese, some English _____Portuguese and English equally _____Mostly English, some Portuguese _____English only _____
14. What language(s) did you use as a child (0-7 years old)?Portuguese only _____Mostly Portuguese, some English _____Portuguese and English equally _____Mostly English, some Portuguese _____English only _____
15. How fluent are you in PORTUGUESE (able to read, write and speak)?Completely fluent _____Fluent _____Somewhat fluent _____Not very fluent _____Completely unknowledgeable _____
16. How fluent are you in ENGLISH (able to read, write and speak)?Completely fluent _____Fluent _____Somewhat fluent _____Not very fluent _____Completely unknowledgeable _____
17. How comfortable do you feel speaking PORTUGUESE?

Not at all

Medium

Very comfortable

At home

1

2

3

4

5

At work

1

2

3

4

5

W/ friends

1

2

3

4

5

In general

1

2

3

4

5

18. How comfortable do you feel speaking ENGLISH?

 

Not at all

 

Medium

 

Very comfortable

At home

1

2

3

4

5

At work

1

2

3

4

5

W/ friends

1

2

3

4

5

In general

1

2

3

4

5

19. How much do you enjoy:

 

Not at all

Very much

Brazilian music

1

2

3

4

5

Brazilian dances

1

2

3

4

5

Brazilian restaurants

1

2

3

4

5

Brazilian TV shows

1

2

3

4

5

Brazilian radio stations

1

2

3

4

5

Brazilian books

1

2

3

4

5

Brazilian magazines

1

2

3

4

5

20. How much do you enjoy:

 

Not at all

Very much

American music

1

2

3

4

5

American dances

1

2

3

4

5

American restaurants

1

2

3

4

5

American TV shows

1

2

3

4

5

American radio stations

1

2

3

4

5

American books

1

2

3

4

5

American magazines

1

2

3

4

5

21. How much do you partake or use the following BRAZILIAN mass media:

 

Never

All the time

Newspapers

1

2

3

4

5

Internet sites

1

2

3

4

5

Magazines

1

2

3

4

5

Books

1

2

3

4

5

Radio shows

1

2

3

4

5

TV shows

1

2

3

4

5

Music

1

2

3

4

5

22. How much do you partake or use the following AMERICAN mass media:

 

Never

All the time

Newspapers

1

2

3

4

5

Internet sites

1

2

3

4

5

Magazines

1

2

3

4

5

Books

1

2

3

4

5

Radio shows

1

2

3

4

5

TV shows

1

2

3

4

5

Music

1

2

3

4

5

23. Sometimes, life is not exactly as you would like it to be. Some aspects of life you might like to be completely Brazilian or completely American. If you could have it your way, how would you like the following aspects of your life to be? Please circle the answer that best applies to you:

 

I wish this to be completely Brazilian

I wish this to be mostly Brazilian

I wish this to be equally Brazilian and American

I wish this to be mostly American

I wish this to be completely American

Food

1

2

3

4

5

Language

1

2

3

4

5

Music

1

2

3

4

5

TV shows

1

2

3

4

5

Books & magazines

1

2

3

4

5

Dances

1

2

3

4

5

Radio shows

1

2

3

4

5

Religious celebrations

1

2

3

4

5

Family celebrations

1

2

3

4

5

Other celebrations

1

2

3

4

5

THANK YOU!

APPENDIX 2: PORTUGUESE-LANGUAGE QUESTIONNAIRE

2. Sexo: Masc. _____ Femin. _____
3. Idade: _____
4. Estado civil:Solteiro(a) _____ Casado(a) _____Parceiro(a) _____ Separado(a) _____ Viúvo(a) _____
5. Religião: Católica _____ Protestante _____Outra Cristã _____ Judeu _____Budista _____ Outra/Nenhuma _____
6. Última série completada na escola:Primária (0-5) _____Ginásio (6-8) _____Secundário Incompleto (9-10) _____Secundário (11-12) _____Universidade Incompleta (1-2) _____Universidade (3-4) _____Pós-Graduação _____
7. Profissão:Administrativa/Escritório _____Artística/Musical _____Computação _____Construção/Operário/Indústria _____Educação/Acadêmica/Pesquisa _____Financeiro/Imóveis/Vendas _____Lei/Político/Governo_____Médico/Serviços de saúde _____Técnico/Científico/Engenharia _____Outra ____________________
8. Salário Anual (renda famil. média):Menos de US$ 20,000 _____20,001-30,000 _____30,001-40,000 _____40,001-50,000 _____50,001-75,000 _____75,001-90,000 _____90,001-120,000 _____Mais de 120,000 _____
9. Anos morando nos EUA:Menos de 12 meses ____ 12-24 meses _____2-3 anos _____4-5 anos _____6-8 anos _____8-10 anos _____10-14 anos _____15-20 anos _____Mais de 20 anos _____
10. Você vai ao Brasil com quanta frequência?Nunca _____ Uma vez a cada 5 anos _____Uma vez a cada 2-3 anos _____Uma vez por ano _____ Mais de uma vez por ano _____
11. Situação doméstica:Morando sozinho(a) _____Com esposa(o) brasileira(o) _____Com esposa(o) que fala inglês _____Com "roommates" brasileiros _____C/ "roommates" que falam inglês ____C/ "roommates" que falam ingles e português _____
12. Que língua(s) você fala em casa?Apenas Português _____Mais Português que Inglês _____Português e Inglês igualmente _____Mais Inglês que Português _____Apenas Inglês _____
13. Que língua(s) você fala no trabalho?Apenas Português _____Mais Português que Inglês _____Português e Inglês igualmente _____Mais Inglês que Português _____Apenas Inglês _____
14. Que língua(s) você usava quando criança (0-7 anos)?Apenas Português _____Mais Português que Inglês _____Português e Inglês igualmente _____Mais Inglês que Português _____Apenas Inglês _____
15. Como você avalia sua fluência em PORTUGUÊS (capaz de ler, escrever e falar)?Completamente fluente _____Fluente _____Razoavelmente fluente _____Não muito fluente _____Sem fluência nenhuma _____
16. Como você avalia sua fluência em INGLÊS (capaz de ler, escrever e falar)?Completamente fluente _____Fluente _____Razoavelmente fluente _____Não muito fluente _____Sem fluência nenhuma _____
17. Qual o seu nível de conforto falando PORTUGUÊS?

 

Nenhum conforto

 

+/-

 

Muito confortável

Em casa

1

2

3

4

5

No trabalho

1

2

3

4

5

Com amigos

1

2

3

4

5

Em geral

1

2

3

4

5

18. Qual o seu nível de conforto falando INGLÊS?

 

Nenhum conforto

 

+/-

 

Muito confortável

Em casa

1

2

3

4

5

No trabalho

1

2

3

4

5

Com amigos

1

2

3

4

5

Em geral

1

2

3

4

5

19. O quanto você gosta de:

 

Nem um pouco

     

Muito

Música Brasileira

1

2

3

4

5

Danças Brasileiras

1

2

3

4

5

Restaurantes Brasileiros

1

2

3

4

5

Shows de TV Brasileiros

1

2

3

4

5

Estações de radio Brasileiras

1

2

3

4

5

Livros Brasileiros

1

2

3

4

5

Revistas Brasileiras

1

2

3

4

5

20. O quanto você gosta de:

 

Nem um pouco

     

Muito

Música Americana

1

2

3

4

5

Danças Americanas

1

2

3

4

5

Restaurantes Americanos

1

2

3

4

5

Shows de TV Americanos

1

2

3

4

5

Estações de radio Americanas

1

2

3

4

5

Livros Americanos

1

2

3

4

5

Revistas Americanas

1

2

3

4

5

21. O quanto você usa os seguintes meios de comunicação BRASILEIROS:

 

Nunca

     

Sempre

Jornais

1

2

3

4

5

Sites da Internet

1

2

3

4

5

Revistas

1

2

3

4

5

Livros

1

2

3

4

5

Shows de radio

1

2

3

4

5

Shows de TV

1

2

3

4

5

Música

1

2

3

4

5

22. O quanto você usa os seguintes meios de comunicação AMERICANOS:

 

Nunca

     

Sempre

Jornais

1

2

3

4

5

Sites da Internet

1

2

3

4

5

Revistas

1

2

3

4

5

Livros

1

2

3

4

5

Shows de radio

1

2

3

4

5

Shows de TV

1

2

3

4

5

Música

1

2

3

4

5

23. `As vezes, a vida não é exatamente como você gostaria. Alguns aspectos da vida você gostaria qye fossem totalmente brasileiros; outros aspectos totalmente americanos. Se você pudesse escolher, como você gostaria que sua vida fosse? Por favor, faça um círculo ao redor da resposta que mais se aplica a você:

 

Gostaria que isso fosse completamente Brasileiro

Gostaria que isso fosse quase todo Brasileiro

Gostaria que isso fosse igualmente Brasileiro e Americano

Gostaria que isso fosse quase todo Americano

Gostaria que isso fosse completamente Americano

Comida

1

2

3

4

5

Língua

1

2

3

4

5

Música

1

2

3

4

5

Televisão

1

2

3

4

5

Livros e revistas

1

2

3

4

5

Danças

1

2

3

4

5

Shows de rádio

1

2

3

4

5

Festas religiosas

1

2

3

4

5

Festas de família

1

2

3

4

5

Outras festas

1

2

3

4

5

MUITO OBRIGADO!


About the Author

Raul Reis is a professor and chair of the Department of Journalism at California State University, Long Beach. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Oregon, and his M.S. from Kansas State University. He has published widely on issues such as science and environmental journalism, the impact of media on traditional communities, immigrant adaptation, and media ethics, among other issues.

Author's Address

Prof. Raul Reis
California State University Long Beach
Department of Journalism
1250 Bellflower Blvd, SS/PA 024
Long Beach, CA, 90840, USA
e-mail: rreis@csulb.eduhtp://www.csulb.edu/ HYPERLINK "http://www.csulb.edu/~rreis"


Journal of Intercultural Communication, ISSN 1404-1634, issue 24, October 2010.
URL: http://www.immi.se/intercultural/.