Abstracts

Issue 45, November 2017

Anuradha Bhattacharjee

Impact of “Cultural Imperialism” on Advertising and Marketing

“Cultural imperialism”, a highly debated concept, refers to how an ideology or a way of life is exported from one country to another through movement of cultural goods. A major driver of cultural imperialism in the era of globalization, are large corporations, many of whom have their base in the United States. Viewed “as homogenizing forces”, these corporations through their global brands are known to sell the same tastes and styles along with their values and lifestyle to consumers throughout the world. Because there is controversy over whether global media industries create uniform desires and habits, globalization, for advertising and marketing, is one of the most discussed concepts in recent years.[1] This paper analyzes a large corpus of European and Indian print advertisements to argue that rather than homogenization, globalization may be encouraging a new form of hybridization.

Keywords: Western imperialism, advertising, international marketing strategies, culture, emerging markets, hybridization, homogenization, globalization


Gilad Greenwald and Sam Lehman-Wilzig

"He Will Take Care of our Security Better than Her" - Examining Socio-Cultural Conceptions of Gender in Israeli and American Press Coverage of Female Candidates for Top Political Positions, 2008-2009

This study argues that distinct differences between two cultures and two political campaigns, may result in different press coverage of women running for leadership positions. To demonstrate this, we undertook a content analysis of Tzipi Livni’s and Hillary Clinton's 2008-2009 campaigns in four Israeli and American popular and elite newspapers, examining coverage of nine gender-oriented media frameworks. We found that while the press in both countries strongly emphasized gender-oriented elements in covering the two leaders, the Israeli press was significantly more gender-biased, particularly due to military and religious influences. Additionally, the popular newspapers in both countries were more gender-biased than the elite newspapers, especially in "sensationally" highlighting candidates' sexuality and appearance.

Keywords: Israel/U.S. election campaigns, political culture, media framing, women/female candidates, elite/popular press


Daniel H. Mansson and Stephen Croucher

American and Finnish College Students’ Traits and Interactions with Their Instructors

This cross-cultural investigation sought to compare American and Finnish university students’ communication and personality traits (i.e., argumentativeness, assertiveness, Machiavellianism, and verbal aggressiveness) as well as out-of-class communication with their instructors. American (N = 286) and Finnish (N = 113) university students completed several self-report measures. The results of a MANOVA, an independent samples t-test, Pearson correlational analyses, and Fisher’s z tests revealed significant cultural differences, although the relationships between students’ traits and their out-of-class communication with instructors remained relatively similar in both samples.

Keywords: argumentativeness, assertiveness, Machiavellianism, verbal aggressiveness, out-of-class communication, Finland, cultural differences, Hofstede


Olga V. Nikolaeva, Chen Shumei & Maria Panina

Chinese Proverbs in Chinese Media in English - Intercultural Communication Perspective

The study of ethnic proverbs in intercultural communication in English has recently become a promising research perspective. Chinese media in English, which communicate China’s message to the world, abound in native proverbs. In media coverage of international issues Chinese proverbs present an effective tool of China’s interaction with other countries. Proverbs convey China’s standpoint indirectly but firmly and may be viewed as China’s discursive strategy in media-based international discourse. The research deals with the questions of intercultural and international pragmatics of Chinese proverb quotations in Chinese media in English. The analysis was done on China’s intentions with native proverb quotations and other countries’ reactions to the proverb utterances.

Keywords: proverb dissemination, Chinese proverb, intercultural pragmatics, intercultural communication, Chinese media in English


Marcel Pikhart & Andrea Koblizkova

The Central Role of Politeness in Business Communication - The Appropriateness Principle as the Way to Enhance Business Communication Efficiency

The paper focuses on practical consequences of exploitation of applied linguistics, and moreover intercultural linguistics, in everyday business communication and modern management from the viewpoint of politeness principles. The authors assume that the intentional use of the theoretical principles of intercultural linguistics concerning politeness strategies can possibly improve business communication efficiency in the current intercultural environment. Therefore, intercultural linguistics is a pragmatic discipline with potential utilization in everyday business communication and international management practices. Politeness as a basic communicative principle has recently experienced a wide interest of scholars as the area of interactional pragmatics examining a vast range of topics connected to languages and their varieties and their interaction in the context of culture; however, the practical implications are still missing. The authors try to use local data to show how politeness principles and their practical exploitation can be manifested in a particular cultural context, namely the Czech Republic, and focus on projecting our identity in language and the means we use to achieve interactional goals.

Keywords: business communication, politeness theory, international business, communication efficiency


Miriam Sobre-Denton

Multicultural third culture building - A case study of a multicultural social support group

Cross-cultural transitions provide rich opportunities for increased intercultural dialogue in multicultural social networks. This research uses Casmir’s third culture theory as a framework to examine social support during adaptation, by presenting a case study of an ethnography of an international student group. The study contributes to cross-cultural adaptation literature by exploring how membership in a multicultural social support group influences member identities and interactions with the host-culture during transitions. Findings extend third culture theory from a combination of two cultures to an amalgamation of multiple cultural influences; membership the group influences multicultural identity construction, providing rich social support that complicates home/host culture bifurcations.

Keywords: Third culture, social support, adaptation, multicultural identity


Michał Wilczewski, Arkadiusz Gut & Oleg Gorbaniuk

The impact of individualism-collectivism orientation and communal orientation on employees’ attitudes toward intercultural communication - The case of Chinese employees in an MNC

This study explored relationships between an individualism-collectivism orientation as well as communal orientation and the perceptions of Chinese employees (n = 20) from an MNC of intercultural communication. On the basis of previous research, we hypothesised that this group of employees would display a tendency to focus their attention on the actions, knowledge and needs of their co-workers. To verify this hypothesis, the employees were surveyed in a Chinese subsidiary of a European top manufacturing company. We administered Individualism and Collectivism Scale, Communal Orientation Scale and an original questionnaire survey collecting data about participants’ opinions of cultural diversity, communication problems, and stereotypes in intercultural interactions. A correlation analysis showed that although collectivists expressed positive attitudes to cultural diversity, they accentuated a need for respecting their own cultural values. Both collectivists and communally-oriented employees were not emotionally involved in communication with co-workers from other cultures. Whilst collectivism was moderately associated with focusing on norms at a workplace, communal orientation was proven to be related to maintaining and regulating relationships within a professional group.

Keywords: Chinese employees; communal orientation; communication awareness; individualism-collectivism; intercultural communication; perspective-taking


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