Issue 50, July 2019

Charaf Ahmimed and Sofia Quesada-Montano

Intercultural dialogue - A tool for young people to address exclusion in southern Africa

This article aims to develop understanding about how intercultural dialogue can pave the way for more inclusive societies. Four intercultural dialogues were held, one in each of the following countries: Malawi, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. They addressed important topics such as cultural identity, gender inequality, and power imbalances in access to education or employment, with young people from diverse ethnic origins (e.g. Tonga, Shona and Ndebele). The dialogues provided participants with an opportunity to discuss the social dynamics of exclusion. In addition, they allowed for the study of the usefulness of intercultural dialogue to motivate personal transformation as a cornerstone for social justice.

Keywords: Intercultural dialogue, southern African youth, exclusion, interculturality

Stephen M Croucher, Elvis Nshom, Diyako Rahmani & Cheng Zeng

Social Desirability Bias among Prejudice Instruments - An Integrated Threat

A considerable amount of research has examined the extent to which members of dominant cultures perceive minority groups as threatening their way of life. While various instruments measure these perceptions of threat, few researchers have empirically analysed the statistical properties of these scales. Specifically, studies have not adequately explored social desirability of threat scales. The current study investigates the extent to which one set of threat scales is internally consistent or reliable (González et al., 2008), and explores social desirability within the González et al. (2008) integrated threat instruments by comparing self-reports to other reports (intimate other and friend reports). Results indicate the instruments are internally consistent and that self-reports and other reports of threat do not differ on most indices of threat.

Keywords: Integrated threat theory, prejudice, measurement, reliability analysis

Joshua Gukiina, Joseph Mpeera Ntayi, Waswa Balunywa & Augustine Ahiauzu

Intercultural Sensitivity and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour of Uganda Hotels’ Staff

The study examined the extent to which; intercultural sensitivity and organizational citizenship behaviour are constructs of the social exchange theory and intercultural sensitivity explains organizational citizenship behaviour. A mixed research design was applied to determine the predictive relationship intercultural sensitivity and organizational citizenship behaviour. Intercultural sensitivity significantly predicts Organizational citizenship behaviour.The instruments were adapted to the Uganda hotels’ environment. It was cross sectional yet, behaviour unfolds gradually. Limited qualitative inquiry was undertaken because; only explanations for the quantitative results were sought. The paper domesticates intercultural sensitivity and organizational citizenship behaviour within the social exchange theory and directly tested for the predictive relationship between intercultural sensitivity and organizational citizenship behaviour.

Keywords: Organizational Citizenship Behaviour, Intercultural sensitivity

Jung-Soo Yi

In-group and out-group perspectives - A cross-cultural comparison of four countries

As the interrelationships among countries are increasing in various social, political, educational, and commercial contexts, it would be beneficial to understand how people of different cultures perceive the links of human relationships and how they present different behaviors toward in-group and out-group individuals. By conducting questionnaire, the present study aims to explore the differences in in-group and out-group perceptions and behavioral patterns of private organization employees in South Korea, Japan, Canada, and the United States. Statistical analysis of the collected data yielded cultural differences of human relationships based on in-group and out-group distinctions. To obtain more generally applicable findings, however, further investigation should examine other factors such as age, geographical locations, education, and occupations.

Keywords: In-group, Out-group, Organizations, Cultures, Comparisons

Stewart Nield

The Mismeasure of Culture - Self-Report Questionnaires and Positivist Analysis in Intercultural Communication Research

The use of self-report questionnaires has been one of the most prevalent methods of data collection in Intercultural Communication research since as early as the 1950s. Yet, the method has received widespread criticism from a range of academic disciplines. For the field of Intercultural Communication, there is the added concern that self-report data and its epistemological companion, quantitative analysis, succeed only in reducing complex intercultural issues to an overly-simplistic numerical summary. Despite these criticisms, the number and influence of self-report questionnaires in Intercultural Communication research continues to grow. Therefore, this paper seeks to remind researchers of the many problems existing when asking respondents to self-report on complex intercultural issues. By way of an example, Ang et al’s (2007) Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS) will be analysed through a critically interpretive approach.

Keywords: intercultural research, post-positivism, self-report questionnaires, cultural intelligence, cultural intelligence scale

Amos Owen Thomas

Visual Vernaculars Across Emerging Markets - Inter-Cultural Perception of Global Advertising

Given the predominance of visual image over language copy in global advertising this research explores its inter-cultural perception across emerging markets worldwide. Discourse analysis was conducted on the qualitative responses to global print advertisements by target segments in emerging markets of three geographic regions. Both similarities and differences of perception were found between the selected markets in the Middle East, Latin America and East Asia regions, among the upper middle-class target segment for up-market fashion products. Hence the author proposes that visual perception of global advertising be conceptualized as a continuum of vernaculars, rather than as discrete modes suggested by established inter-cultural typologies. Effective execution of global advertising campaigns for emerging markets therefore calls for contingency approaches to optimizing creative strategies.

Keywords: Visual perception, inter-cultural communication, global advertising, emerging markets

Agus Wijayanto

Refusals in Javanese and English - A comparative study of saying ‘no’ in two different cultures

Refusing is a common speech act; nonetheless people from different cultural backgrounds employ different refusal strategies. The present study compares refusal strategies used between native speakers of Javanese in Indonesia and native speakers of British English in the United Kingdom. Empirical data were elicited by means of discourse completion tasks. The findings showed that Javanese and British native speakers favoured indirect refusal strategies and used approximately similar sequential orders of refusals, although the types of semantic formulas and adjuncts involved were different. Awareness of different social status levels tended to induce different frequencies of the use of semantic formulas and adjuncts of refusals whereas different initiating acts of refusals generated different use of the types of semantic formulas and adjuncts.

Keywords: refusals, invitations, offers, sequential order, semantic formula

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