Green Entrepreneurship Based On Local Characteristics and Culture To Support Sustainable Eco-Tourism: A Case Study
Sustainable tourism development is an important issue in the tourism industry today. In-depth discussion in this field involves academics, the government, and private companies. Tourism and the creative economy sectors play an important role in supporting Indonesia's development. The contribution is based on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the availability of employment opportunities, both directly and indirectly. In line with this, those sectors contribute 11.8% to Indonesia's GDP and 14.66% to total employment (International Labor Organization, 2012). With the availability of abundant natural resources, diverse cultures, and quite large domestic and international market potential, Indonesia is faced with the challenge of figuring out to utilize these assets so that they can be of maximum benefit to the country and society.
Sustainable development has been defined in the legal framework, but its practical implementation has not been carried out consistently. Human resources in the tourism and hospitality sector are a strategic issue that will determine the quality of achieving national development targets and increasing Indonesia's global competitiveness . Tourism development is related to the government's goal of empowering the community to achieve a prosperous life. By achieving this goal, the NTB provincial government can harmonize tourism development with the development of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs), where MSMEs in Indonesia has proven to possess a pivotal role in the national economy, especially in terms of increasing job opportunities, income distribution, rural economic development, and an increase in non-oil and gas exports. The government strongly supports the development of MSMEs through various policies.
However, the development of tourism, in addition to providing a positive impact in terms of a multiplier effect and the economic development of a region, also causes negative impacts, such as environmental damage and waste. As a result, eco-tourism emerges as an alternative form of tourism to counteract negative perceptions of tourism's impact. This alternative tourism concept comes with the dual purpose of conservation and sustainable development (Wondirad et al., 2020). According to (Epler Wood et al., 2022), eco-tourism is defined as nature-based tourism to preserve the environment, maintain the welfare of local communities, and educate tourists. Hence, eco-tourism is considered a sustainable development tool for developing countries with a wealth of natural and cultural resources, such as the territory of Indonesia.
The local government in West Nusa Tenggara has planned to develop ecotourism through unique local cultural characteristics and potential. The region's Minister of Domestic Affairs regulation clearly states that ecotourism is the potential of natural resources, the environment, and the uniqueness of nature and culture, which can be one of the region's leading sectors that have not been developed fully. In the context of optimally developing eco-tourism in the regions, a strategy for planning, utilization, control, institutional strengthening, and community empowerment is needed by considering social, economic, and ecological principles and involving stakeholders.
The province of West Nusa Tenggara (NTB) consists of two large islands, namely Lombok and Sumbawa islands, as well as hundreds of other smaller islands, for a total of 280 islands. Of these, 32 islands are inhabited. NTB has an area of 20,153.15 km2 and is located between 115°46' - 119° 5' East Longitude and 8°10' - 9° 5' South Latitude. The province is directly adjacent to the Java Sea and Flores Sea to the north, the Indonesian Ocean to the south, the Lombok Strait (Bali Province) to the west, and the Sape Strait (East Nusa Tenggara Province). The NTB Provincial Government Center is in Mataram, Lombok. It has seven mountains, the highest being Mount Rinjani, with an altitude of 3,726 m above sea level. Meanwhile, Sumbawa has nine mountains, with the highest being Mount Tambora, with an altitude of 2,851 m above sea level.
Its natural beauty gives the province of NTB a very high tourism potential. In 2013, the Department of Culture and Tourism NTB recorded 1,357,602 tourists who came to the islands of Lombok and Sumbawa, consisting of 565,944 foreign tourists and 791,658 domestic tourists. Based on data released by the Central Statistics Bureau, the number of travel agencies in the province of NTB has increased from 2003 to 2012. Various development programs have been developed by the province in various sectors. Apart from agriculture, the tourism sector is one of the mainstays of its economy. NTB Province has many potential tourist destinations with diverse natural and cultural conditions. Some of its natural attractions can compete with those of other provinces, such as Senggigi Beach on the west coast of Lombok Island, Kuta Beach (southern coast of Lombok Island), and Gili Trawangan (Island), which has very beautiful white sand. Many of the hotels and other lodging facilities built in these tourist destinations meet international standards. The province of NTB also has well-known cultural tourism destinations such as the oldest temple in NTB, tourist villages, and other various places.
The research questions are: 1) Is there any potential that can be developed as ecotourism in Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia? And 2) What are the models and policies for developing ecotourism in the region? Many studies have highlighted the issues of sustainable tourism policy (Dodds, 2007; Luu, 2021; Tabavar et al., 2021, Shein et al., 2020, Dargoi et al., 2017, Anup et al., 2015, Zhu et al., 2015; Lazos-Ruiz et al., 2014) but it is still rare to specifically discuss ecotourism policies in an area. This study aims to build a model of ecotourism development and planning in the context of developing countries, especially the relationship between ecotourism and sustainable community development through green entrepreneurship as the main weapon in increasing the attractiveness of ecotourism destinations in the province of West Nusa Tenggara. The fundamental problem in the development of sustainable ecotourism based on local communities is that there is no clear format for developing local communities to achieve the welfare of local communities while still staying in the corridor of the main function of preserving nature. Furthermore, in the development of green entrepreneurship, it is not easy to build business actors with the spirit of serving the community and environment or community service institutions with the spirit of entrepreneurs with an environmental perspective.
2. Literature Review
According to the flow of positivism, which is widely used in the academic world, this study uses (Phillips et al., 2003) stakeholder theory as the foundation or grand theory. According to that theory, in order to achieve business continuity, companies must establish good relations with stakeholders based on the principles of justice and moral responsibility. Stakeholders also have the power to encourage companies to disclose as much company information as needed by stakeholders. For that, the company must build good relations with stakeholders.
Green entrepreneurship is defined by Crals and Vereeck (2004) as a company's ongoing commitment to ethical behavior that promotes economic development and improves the quality of life of workers, families, local and global communities, and future generations (Zeng & Ren, 2022). Its activities must balance three primary lines: economic health, social justice, and environmental resilience (Gu et al., 2022). Implementing green entrepreneurship can support businesses in achieving sustainability through environmental protection. Green entrepreneurship's moral, instrumental, and relational motives ensure sustainable development by improving character, increasing efficiency and saving energy resources, helping to reduce waste, and ultimately laying a solid foundation for sustainable development (Yousaf et al., 2021).
It is the best community empowerment solution to improve community welfare through sustainable ecotourism development. Sustainable ecotourism development is the responsibility of all stakeholders ). All problems in ecotourism development that create negative impacts must be addressed by all stakeholders, namely the government, NGOs, the private sector, and academia, including local communities, to prevent or avoid damage to socio-culture and the environment.
Community empowerment is the main key to developing community welfare through tourism. It is also a requirement to develop sustainable tourism. The development of ecotourism attractions needs to be continued with the empowerment of the surrounding community to improve their welfare without losing the responsibility to preserve nature. Empowerment is carried out step by step with the right perception and interpretation to avoid the mistake of empowerment that does not support the principle of sustainable empowerment. To develop eco-tourism in an area, the first step that needs to be taken is to study the concepts, principles, and objectives of development. The next stage is identifying potential obstacles and determining the right strategies and scenarios for development (Mosammam et al., 2016).
2.1 Sustainable Eco-Tourism
Sustainable eco-tourism contributes to environmental and socio-economic conservation and improves the welfare of local communities. Implementing sustainable eco-tourism policies has more benefits related to environmental economics and reduces harm to the physical and human environment. Sustainable tourism solves environmental damage due to tourism activities (Dodds, 2007). Eco-tourism is an environmentally friendly tourist visit to a pristine area with a solid culture to participate in activities such as local games, conservation education, and cultural tourism that contribute to income for environmental improvement and support the economic welfare of local communities (Epler Wood et al., 2022). This unique attribute of eco-tourism makes it sustainable.
Developing countries face challenges in dealing with the strategic, planning, and operational competencies needed for successful eco-tourism development due to the complex nature of the field, which must unite various stakeholders in its management. Therefore, collaboration from many parties is needed to accommodate all stakeholders (Wondirad et al., 2020).
2.2. Potential Contribution to Knowledge Development
This urgency (priority) is an important need for policy patterns and strategies for developing the concept of green entrepreneurship to support the attraction of tourists visiting ecotourism destinations in the province of NTB. The concept will be developed through several variables, namely: green creativity, green proactiveness, green innovativeness, green risk-taking, green opportunity focus, green resource utility, and the creation of green value that supports ecotourism programs.
The results of this study can add empirical evidence to the research related to green entrepreneurship. This research will also be published later and can be used as textbook material to add references supporting the development of science, especially in green entrepreneurship, for students and educators. It can be used as a resource for students and researchers looking for information on sustainable green entrepreneurship.
3. Research Methodology
3.1. Development Model
Plomp (1997) developed the Research and Development method used in this study. According to Borg and Gall, development research is a process used to develop and validate educational products. It is carried out based on an industry-based development model. The findings are used to design products and procedures, which are then systematically subjected to field tests, evaluated, and refined to meet certain criteria of effectiveness, quality, and standard. From the description above, it can be concluded that development research is an activity that results in or improves products and then examines the effectiveness and feasibility of these products.
Soenarto et al. (2007) argue that the characteristics of research and development are: (1) research-based in nature, meaning that product development is pursued through education and training, (2) product-oriented and not testing theory, and (3) development results are used for improvement and the development of better products and business quality. The development of an education and training model for Lombok weaving Small and Medium Enterprises (UKM) and the development of a green tourism village will follow the model’s development stage, according to (Plomp, 1997). The development phases of the Plomp model include: (1) the initial investigation phase; (2) the design phase; (3) the realization/construction phase; (4) the testing, model evaluation, and revision phases; and (5) the implementation phase. To promote the green tourism village model and Lombok weaving, Focus Group Discussion (FGD) is used to validate the development of the right model based on field observations and expert Judgment validating the development of the model before it is tested in the field.
3.2. Development Procedure
There are several procedures used in carrying out research and development (R&D), namely qualitative and experimental. According to (Sugiyono, 2009), qualitative methods can be used in initial research to produce information about the profile of education and training models that will be elevated in the development of tourism villages and green entrepreneurs in Lombok weaving. An effective education and training development model can be designed based on the data obtained. Furthermore, Sugiyono (2009) argues that to determine the model's effectiveness, it needs to be tested. Testing is done through empirical testing in the form of model trials in the field. After the model has been tested, it can be applied to address the problem of the education and training model for SMEs and green entrepreneurs to support the tourism village development model. The stages or development steps carried out in this study are presented in Figure 3.1.
The research activity was to be carried out in two stages over a two-year period, namely: 1) Year I stage consists of activities to determine the vision and mission of ecotourism and green entrepreneurs; evaluation of triple helix support factors (government, academics, and green product business actors) in ecotourism development; evaluation of internal ecotourism factors; SWOT analysis; alternative strategies; quantitative strategic planning matrix; choosing a green product business actor; and choosing a green product business actor. At this stage, it is hoped that a green entrepreneurship-based ecotourism development strategy model will be established.
(2) Year II, it conducts workout activities and analyzes the green entrepreneurship-based ecotourism development strategy model in the province of NTB, then compiles (a) green entrepreneurship-based ecotourism development policy, (b) an action plan for the unit responsible for implementation, initial work responsibilities, starts the time of work, and completion, (c) the key performance indicators (KPI) of each variable, and (d) A monitoring and evaluation system. At the end of Year II, it is hoped that the green entrepreneurship-based ecotourism development policy, action plans, KPIs for green entrepreneurship-based ecotourism development, and a management information system for evaluation monitoring of green entrepreneurship-based ecotourism development in the province of NTB will have been completed. At the data collection stage, using a questionnaire, 96 respondents were obtained from a total population of 150 weavers and 50 pearl artisans.
4. Data Analysis Results
Most of the respondents were productive aged 30-40 years old and were married women who did the weaving in Pringgasela village. Information data related to the attractiveness of tourist destinations and demographics, access to infrastructure and environmental sustainability, benefits for the surrounding community, tourist behavior, as well as promotions and information, are presented in table 1 below.
|Std. De v
|Tourist demographics and attraction to tourist destinations
|Access to Infrastructure and Environmental Sustainability
|Benefits for the surrounding community
|Promotions and Information
The five research variables' values are approaching or have reached a maximum value of 5. Therefore, it can be said that the condition of tourism actors in Lombok has been very ready for green entrepreneurship for three years and to support sustainable eco-tourism.
4.1. Attraction Of Tourist Destinations
Table 1 shows that, from a total of 96 respondents who participated, the attractiveness of tourist destinations and demographics showed an average value of 4.94 with a standard deviation of 0.22926. As many as 96% of respondents strongly agree that tourist destinations in Lombok are desirable because they are based on culture and nature and are unique, so they need to be preserved. The same percentage of respondents also strongly agree that the management of tourist destinations in Lombok needs to be improved on an ongoing basis and that the people of Lombok are ready to develop tourist destinations sustainably. The people of Lombok realize that their culture is unique. It needs to be preserved and used as a tourism asset. As many as 93% of respondents answered that they come in line with the development of tourism in Lombok and that it is necessary to involve stakeholders in the related area. The stakeholders include the community, government, and academia.
Meanwhile, regarding the demographic conditions in Lombok, 91% of respondents responded that they strongly agree that the demographic conditions in Lombok are quite favorable because there is an adequate workforce, while the remaining 9% agreed. This indicates that the preservation and development of tourist destinations in Lombok is something that needs to be done. Currently, the readiness and support of the community in efforts to preserve and develop tourist destinations already exist. Nevertheless, some things that still need to be considered in preserving and developing tourist destinations in Lombok are the involvement of stakeholders in the related area and the availability of an adequate workforce.
4.2. Access, Infrastructure, and Environmental Sustainability
From 96 respondents, the variable access to infrastructure and environmental sustainability has an average value of 4.96 with a standard deviation of 0.19664. According to respondents' answers on this variable, 96% of respondents strongly agree that for the development of tourist destinations, adequate access and infrastructure are needed to reach tourist destinations, with the transportation used being low in pollution. As many as 99% of respondents strongly agree that exploration carried out on tourist destinations needs to be considered so as not to damage the environment. 99% of respondents also stated that they strongly agreed about the need to consider the regulation of solid, liquid, and gas waste to preserve the environment. Meanwhile, 98% of respondents strongly agree that developing tourist destinations requires support from local entrepreneurs, SMEs, and home artisans.
Meanwhile, 92% of respondents who responded strongly agree, and 8% of respondents who answered agree, which shows that beach tourism destinations such as Sekotong and Kuta already have lifeguards ready to provide first aid if needed. This shows that the provision of access and infrastructure in the development of tourist destinations in Lombok needs to pay attention to aspects of environmental sustainability. Furthermore, efforts to develop tourist destinations by supporting local entrepreneurs, SMEs, and home artisans in related areas also need to pay attention to aspects of environmental sustainability so that the security aspect in the development of tourist destinations can be improved, not only for human safety but also for the environment.
4.2.1. Benefits Of Tourism for Community
In the variable of benefit to the surrounding community, of the 96 participating respondents, the average score was 4.96, and the standard deviation was 0.20475. As many as 95% of respondents strongly agree that the development of tourist destinations should provide optimal benefits for the surrounding community, one of which can absorb local workers. Furthermore, 96% of respondents agreed that tourism development needs to be supported by practical policies and local government regulations, and 97% answered that communication and cooperation should be good between SMEs/entrepreneurs, local governments, and other stakeholders. In the meantime, 96% of respondents agreed that the form of training and development should be determined by the needs. This indicates that the development of tourist destinations needs to be oriented toward the benefit of the surrounding community. Therefore, development efforts need to start with meeting the needs of tourist destinations’ need, which can increase the absorption of local workers' absorption. Furthermore, ongoing communication and collaboration between SMEs and entrepreneurs, as well as local governments and stakeholders, is required to ensure that the policies and regulations put in place are effective in developing tourist destinations and benefiting the surrounding community.
4.3. Tourist Behavior
The tourist behavior variable showed an average value of 4.98 with a standard deviation of 0.1430 from 96 participating respondents. As many as 98% of respondents stated that they strongly agree about the need for appeals or rules so that tourists do not act to damage the environment, providing clear information so that tourists do not litter, the need to provide adequate waste disposal facilities and toilets, and the need for appeals to tourists to be polite and maintain decency. This shows that efforts to develop tourist destinations also need to be supported by regulations and the provision of infrastructure that can control tourist behavior. The behavior of tourists in tourist locations/destinations until now has had a tendency not to preserve the environment, such as not maintaining cleanliness, throwing garbage out of place, scribbling on walls or trees, and so on. As a result, it is necessary to issue an appeal or standard rules regarding it for tourists to comply.
It is necessary to procure or add adequate waste disposal facilities in each tourist destination so tourists can easily access them. Until now, many tourist destinations still do not provide adequate toilet facilities, so this is quite a hassle for tourists. For this reason, paying more attention to providing adequate toilet facilities in each tourist destination is deemed necessary. Tourist courtesy and a sense of decency are regarded as critical for the tourism industry in Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara. This is based on the demographic conditions in the area, the majority of which are Muslims, who prioritize modesty in appearance and maintain decency. Several tourist destinations also provide clothes that can be rented or given to tourists wearing improper clothes, for example, wearing shorts, sleeveless shirts, and tight clothes.
4.4. Promotions And Information
On the promotion and information variables, of the 96 participating respondents, the average score was 4.95 with a standard deviation of 0.21542. As many as 95% of respondents strongly agreed that the Lombok tourism promotion strategy has been carried out quite effectively and that there has been an increase in investment promotion synergies between the tourism sector and other related sectors. However, as many as 96% of respondents also strongly agreed about the need to expand regional, national, and international tourism promotion. This shows that although the tourism promotion strategy in Lombok has been quite effective, it is still necessary to expand promotion at the national and international levels. Therefore, efforts to develop tourist destinations should pay attention to things that can attract tourists at the domestic and international levels, one of which is promoting environmentally friendly tourist destinations.
Developing cultural-based ethnic tourism is essential to maintain and preserving indigenous cultural artifacts. Natural woven fabrics developed in Pringgasela village are examples of indigenous ethnic and cultural artifacts. The elders developed natural weaving crafts using local resources for a long time. The community has long had the technology to process woven cotton yarn. People plant and cultivate cotton trees on their farms. Cultivating cotton trees and spinning natural woven threads is an ethnic technology that is very attractive to tourists.
Natural coloring is another side that is no less interesting than the technology presented in ethnic tourism performances. Developing natural coloring using various materials from bark and leaves is a unique and attractive technology for tourists. Ways to make natural colors and various types of natural materials for dyeing woven fabrics can be presented as tourist objects that are included in promotional media. The technology of spinning woven threads, natural dyeing, weaving and making garments are essential to be packaged as a natural process for tourism objects. The promotion of nature tourism is done through web media.
The website weavingsasak.com has been created. The website directly markets Pringgasela weaving products and their derivative products. For weaving lovers, many are familiar with Pringgasela Sasak weaving. This woven fabric, known since the 15th century, has special meaning for the people of East Lombok. Loom instead of machine motorization is also carried out to speed up the production period because going from yarn to fabric requires many stages.
4.4.1. Establishment Of the Vision and Mission of Ecotourism and Green Entrepreneurship
Based on the respondents to this questionnaire, an overview of efforts to develop and preserve sustainable tourist destinations in Lombok can be obtained as follows.
Based on figure 2, the vision and mission for the development of ecotourism and green entrepreneurs suggest some concrete steps that can be taken, such as building a new vision that realizes the development of ecotourism and green entrepreneurs that are appropriate and beneficial for the community, preserving the environment, and increasing tourism attractiveness.
By carrying out movements, it can implement new missions, which are:
- To establish a strategy for developing ecotourism and green entrepreneurs according to the needs of the community.
- To support environmental conservation efforts through ecotourism and green entrepreneurs.
- To increase tourism attractiveness through ecotourism and green entrepreneurs.
This vision and mission can be accomplished by doing the triple helix supporting factors (government, academia, and green product business actors) in ecotourism development. The factors of support from the government, academics, and green product business actors in the development of ecotourism and green entrepreneurs can be described as follows:
- Generating innovation for the development of tourist destinations.
- Training as needed, specifically for product innovation with eco-printed ATBM.
- Encouraging research and improving the quality of tourist destinations.
- Making proactive regulations on the development of eco-friendly tourist destinations.
- Improving accessibility and environmentally friendly infrastructure in tourist areas.
- Facilitating the expansion of tourism destination promotions.
- Providing local entrepreneurs with assistance in the form of business facilities.
- Running an environmentally friendly business in tourist destinations.
- Producing quality products.
- Building a business that absorbs many workers.
- Establishing communication and cooperation with the government and other relevant stakeholders.
4.5. Ecotourism Internal Factors
Based on the answers to the questionnaire, information was obtained regarding the internal factors of ecotourism, including the strengths and weaknesses of ecotourism development. These internal factors are described as follows:
a. Exciting nature
b. Interesting social culture
c. Effective promotion
d. Community readiness in developing tourist destinations
b. Supporting facilities and infrastructure
c. Tourism activities have the potential to damage the environment
4.6. SWOT Analysis
Through the answers to the questionnaire, information related to available resources (strengths and weaknesses) and information related to environmental conditions (opportunities and threats) was obtained. The information is then analyzed according to the SWOT analysis to maximize strengths and opportunities and minimize weaknesses and threats. The results of the SWOT analysis are described in Table 2.
|a. Exciting natural environmentb. Interesting social culturec. Effective promotiond. Community readiness in developing tourist destinations
|a. Inadequate accessibilityb. Inadequate supporting facilities and infrastructurec. Tourism activities have the potential to damage the environment
|Opportunitiesa. Lombok tourism destinations have a uniqueness from other regions in the form of a woven fabric industry and pearl shell breeding.b. Opening employment opportunities and absorbing labor from the surrounding community.c. Shifting the needs of the community and tourists towards environmentally friendly tourism activitiesd. Promotion on social media platforms to reach local and international tourists
|Threata. Inadequate access to eco-tourism locationsb. Lack of community empowerment and business actors in related areas.c. Lack of awareness among tourists about preserving the environment.d. The high competition in the tourism business.
Marketing & Selling Land transportation Accommodation Food and Beverage Activities
4.7. The Background of Sustainable Tourism Development
Since 2014, Bappenas (National Development Planning Agency), the Ministry of Tourism, and GIZ-RED, along with local partners, have been involved in the Green Tourism Promotion Program on Lombok Island, NTB. The tourism sector's contribution to increasing the community's role in tourism and environmental sustainability is not yet confirmed. Starting in early 2015, Bappenas and GIZ, along with local partners, initiated the development of a green sustainable tourism value chain on Lombok Island under the SREGIP program, which aims to increase added value, inclusive growth, and a sustainable environment for the tourism sector.
Further research is needed on the value chain of the tourism industry on the island of Lombok to identify strengths and weaknesses in implementing sustainable tourism development. Meanwhile, the involvement of tourism business actors in innovation activities (organizations, processes, and products) is still limited, so efforts for innovation activities carried out by a small number of tourism business actors are limited to incremental innovation or "non-radical innovation" (Rahmawati et al., 2021; Rahmawati & Soenarto, 2019).
Pros: No significant cost/investment is required.
Weaknesses: The creation of added value (products and businesses) is not very large; product/service diversification is relatively limited.
Several problems that can hinder innovation efforts are:
•The weak quality of human resources, i.e., education (labor, leaders)
•Limited network and information among business actors
•Financial access to formal institutions and lack of incentives for innovation actors (from customers, competitors, and suppliers), for example, in copyright protection
The role of the community is seen as significant in maintaining environmental sustainability. More than half of the respondents use community networks for environmental issues. Waste management and solid waste recycling have not been widely implemented. Efforts to care for the environment are mainly carried out by hotels, tours & excursions, and restaurants; however, a few handicraft industries still care about environmental issues.
This research aims to create a model of ecotourism development and planning in the context of developing countries, specifically the relationship between ecotourism and sustainable community development through green entrepreneurship as the main weapon in increasing the attractiveness of ecotourism destinations in the West Nusa Tenggara province.
The survey results from the variables studied show that weaving and pearl SMEs are ready to run green entrepreneurship to support sustainable eco-tourism. Pringgasela village already has a gallery for marketing and tourism education on Sasak weaving and non-machine looms (ATBM). The results of product innovation training with eco-printing add to the insight of the craftsmen. ATBM motorization is also a post-pandemic effort to cope with high-quantity orders and shorten production time. The results of this study can be used as an additional source of reference for further research.
This research proves the stakeholder theory due to the low level of innovation (organization, process, and product) carried out by many business actors in the tourism chain. Constraints in human resources (workers and leadership) hamper the innovation process within the company. Lack of incentives for innovators and limited access to financing from formal financial institutions also limit the company's ability to innovate. Very tight competition between tourism business actors (which can lead to unfairness) can encourage an increase in business costs, which is a disincentive for innovation activities. It also has a lack of business assistance. The level of awareness of environmental impacts is still low, and environmental issues are not yet a priority and are still seen as an additional burden (business). The reliance on less environmentally friendly energy sources remains high.
In practice, this research's implications will positively impact the interests of stakeholders who will support consumers and local communities. There will be efforts such as increasing community readiness in developing tourist destinations and environmental issues becoming a high priority.