Applying Casmir’s Third Culture Model (TCM) of intercultural communication (Casmir 1993, 1999), the current study examines the ongoing interaction between two international participants mediated by one social medium: WeChat. It describes the dialogic communication patterns between the participants that enabled them collaboratively to construct a shared and mutually beneficial third culture that brought about a productive intercultural friendship. It demonstrates ways WeChat helped transform their interactions and facilitated their friendship development.
new social media, WeChat, intercultural friendship, third culture, self-disclosure, dialogic communication
Full text article
Bouvier, G. (2015). What is a discourse approach to Twitter, Facebook, YouTube and other social media: Connecting with other academic fields? Journal of Multicultural Discourses, 10(2): 149–162. https://doi.org/10.1080/17447143.2015.1042381
Buber, M. (2009). Elements of the interhuman. In J. Stewart (ed.), Bridges not Walls: 10th edition (62-78). McGraw-Hill.
Casmir, F.L. (1993). Third-culture building: A paradigm shift for international and intercultural communication. In S.A. Deetz (ed.), Communication Yearbook 16 (407–428). Sage.
Casmir, F.L. (1999). Foundations for the study of intercultural communication based on a third-culture building model. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 23(1): 91–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767(98)00027-3
Chen, Y.W. (2006). Intercultural friendship from the perspectives of East Asian international students. China Media Research, 2(3): 43-58.
Cupach, W.R. & T.T. Imahori (1993). Identity management theory: Communication competence in intercultural episodes and relationships. In R.L. Wiseman & J. Koester (eds.), Intercultural Communication Competence. Sage.
Flick, U. (2004). Triangulation in qualitative research. In U. Flick, E. von Kardoff & I. Steinke (eds.), A companion to Qualitative Research (178-183). Sage.
Gareis, E. (2000). Intercultural friendship: Five case studies of German students in the USA. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 21(1): 67–91. https://doi.org/10.1080/07256860050000803
Gareis, E., R. Merkin & J. Goldman (2011). Intercultural friendship: Linking communication variables and friendship success. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 40(2): 153-171. https://doi.org/10.1080/17475759.2011.581034
Gareis, E. (2012). Intercultural friendship: Effects of home and host region. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 5(4): 309-328. https://doi.org/10.1080/17513057.2012.691525
Geertz, C. (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. Basic Books.
Gudykunst, W.B. & Y.Y. Kim (1997). Communicating with Strangers: An Approach to International Communication (3rd edition). McGraw-Hill.
Hall, B.J. (2005). Among Cultures: The Challenge of Communication (2nd edition). Wadsworth.
Hunter, L. & M. Elias (1999). Interracial friendships, multicultural sensitivity, and social competence: How are they related? Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 20(4): 551–573. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0193-3973(99)00028-3
Imahori, T.T. & W.R. Cupach (1995). Identity Management Theory: Facework in intercultural relationships. In W.B. Gudykunst (ed.), Theorizing about Intercultural Communication (195-210). Sage.
Keating, L. (2016). WhatsApp vs. WeChat vs. Line: The best messaging app to download. Tech Times, 29 April 2016. Accessed 13 June 2021 from https://www.techtimes.com/articles/154614/20160429/whatsapp-vs-wechat-line-best-messaging-app-download.htm
Kim, Y.Y. (1991). Intercultural communication competence: A systems-theoretic view. In S. Ting-Toomey & F. Korzenny (eds.), Cross-cultural Interpersonal Communication (259-). Sage.
Kudo, K. & K.A. Simkin (2003). Intercultural friendship formation: The case of Japanese students at an Australian university. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 24(2): 91-114. https://doi.org/10.1080/0725686032000165351
Kuo, L. (2014). WeChat is nothing like WhatsApp – and that makes it even more valuable. Quartz, 20 February 2014. Accessed 13 June 2021 from https://qz.com/179007/wechat-is-nothing-like-whatsapp-and-that-makes-it-even-more-valuable/
Lee, P.W. (2006). Bridging cultures: Understanding the construction of relational identity in intercultural friendship. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 35(1): 3-22. https://doi.org/10.1080/17475740600739156
Lee, P.W. (2008). Stages and transitions of relational identity formation in intercultural friendship: Implications for Identity Management Theory. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 1(1): 51-69. https://doi.org/10.1080/17513050701690918
Mas'udah, D. (2017). The use of social media in intercultural friendship development. Profetik Jurnal Komunikasi, 10(1): 5-20. Accessed 13 June 2021 from http://ejournal.uin-suka.ac.id/isoshum/profetik/article/viewFile/1218/1106
McEwan, B. & M. Sobre-Denton (2011). Virtual cosmopolitanism: Constructing third cultures and transmitting social and cultural capital through social media. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 4(4): 252–258. https://doi.org/10.1080/17513057.2011.598044
Reed, J.S. (1993). My Tears Spoiled My Aim and Other Reﬂections on Southern Culture. Columbia, MO, USA: University of Missouri Press.
Robson, G. (2014). “You are forced to be who you are”: Embodiment and social media in intercultural experience. In G. Robson, M. Zachara & A. Stasiewicz-Bieńkowska (eds.), Digital Diversities: Social Media and Intercultural Experience (12-34). Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars.
Sandel, T.L. & B. Ju (2015). The code of WeChat: Chinese students’ cell phone social media practices. In T. Milburn (ed.), Communicating User Experience: Applying Local Strategies to Digital Media Design (103–126). Lanham, MD, USA: Lexington Books.
Shiau, H.-C. (2016). Easily connected but difficult to become intimate? Intercultural friendships on social media among Taiwanese ESL students in the US. Cogent Social Sciences, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2016.1264152
Sias, P.M., J.A. Drzewiecka, M. Meares, R. Bent, Y. Konomi, M. Ortega & C. White (2008). Intercultural friendship development. Communication Reports, 21(1): 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1080/08934210701643750
Spradley, J.P. (1980). Participant Observation. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Shuter, R. (2012). Intercultural new media studies: The next frontier in Intercultural Communication. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 41(3): 219-237. https://doi.org/10.1080/17475759.2012.728761
Stephen, T. (1986). Communication and interdependence in geographically separated relationships. Human Communication Research, 13(2): 191-210. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1986.tb00102.x
Stewart, J. (ed.) (2009) Bridges not Walls (10th edition). McGraw Hill.
Stewart, J., K.E. Zediker & S. Witteborn (2009). Empathic and dialogic listening. In J. Stewart (ed.), Bridges not Walls: 10th edition (225-243). McGraw-Hill.
Strauss, A.L. & J. Corbin (1998). Basics of Qualitative Research: Procedures and Techniques for Developing Grounded Theory. Sage.
Wood, J.T. (1982). Communication and relational culture: Bases for the study of human relationships. Communication Quarterly, 30(2): 75-83. https://doi.org/10.1080/01463378209369432
Zeng, F., G. Deng, Z. Wang & L. Liu (2016). WeChat: A new clinical teaching tool for problem-based learning. International Journal of Medical Education, 7: 119-121. https://dx.doi.org/10.5116%2Fijme.5708.e5c4