This study examines the intercultural experiences of eight Danish expatriates in Russia. In-depth interviews revealed three characteristics of Hofstede’s dimension: Indulgence verses Restraint (IVR). This study allows us to understand communication between restrained cultures (e.g., Russia) and indulgent cultures (e.g., Denmark). This carries implications for specific and in-depth workplace training to help managers improve intercultural communication within the Russian workplace.
Expatriate managers, indulgence versus restraint, cross-cultural communication, organizational communication training, Russia, Denmark
Full text article
Baskerville, R. F. (2003). Hofstede never studied culture. Accounting, Organizations & Society, 28(1): 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0361-3682(01)00048-4
Belaya, V., & Hanf, J. (2010). Foreign direct investment as an agent of change in Russian agrifood business. Post-Communist Economies, 22(1), 55-72. https://doi.org/10.1080/14631370903525595
Black, J.S., & Gregersen, H. (1999). The right way to manage expats. Business Review. Retrieved from: https://hbr.org/1999/03/the-right-way-to-manage-expats
Black, S. J, & Gregersen, H. (1999). The right way to manage expats. Harvard
Bohm, M. (2011). Why Russians don’t smile? The Moscow Times. Retrieved from http://www.themoscowtimes.com
Bollinger, D. (1994). The four cornerstones and three pillars in the “House of Russia” management system. Journal of Management Development, 13(2): 49-54. https://doi.org/10.1108/02621719410050264
Bülow, A.M. (2011). Global corporate communication and the notion of legitimacy. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 25. Retrieved from: http://www.immi.se/intercultural/nr25/bulow.htm
Camiah, N., & Hollinshead, G. (2003). Assessing the potential for effective cross-cultural working between “new” Russian managers and western expatriates. Journal of World Business, 38(3), 245-261. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1090-9516(03)00021-X
Coene, J., & Jacobs, M. (2017). Negotiate like a local: Seven mindsets to increase your success rate in international business. Hofstede Insights
Expat in Denmark. (2010). Working and living in Denmark: An expat perspective. Danish Chamber of the Commerce and Oxford Research,1-52. Retrieved from: http://issuu.com/expatindenmark/docs/living_and_working_in_denmark
Freeze, G. L. (2009). Russia: A History (3rded.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gioia, D.A., Corley, K.G., & Hamilton, A.L. (2012). Seeking qualitative rigor in inductive research: Notes on the Gioia methodology. Organizational Research Methods, 16(1): 15-31. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428112452151
Grachev, M. V. (2009). Russia, culture, and leadership: Cross-cultural comparisons of managerial values and practices. Problems of Post-Communism, 56(1): 3-11. https://doi.org/1 0.2753/PPC1075-821656010 1
Gut, A., Wilczewski, A., & Gorbaniuk, O. (2017). Cultural differences, stereotypes and communication needs in intercultural communication in a global multicultural environment. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 43. Retrieved from: http://www.immi.se/intercultural/nr43/gorbaniuk.html
Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. London: McGraw-Hill U.K.
Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Intercultural Cooperation and its importance for survival. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Holliday, A. (2011). Intercultural Communication & Ideology. London: Routledge
Javidan, M. & Walker, J. L. (2013) Developing your global mindset: The handbook for successful global leaders. Edina, MN: Beaver’s Pond Press.
Kaur, A., & Noman, M. (2015). Exploring classroom practices in collectivist cultures through the lens of Hofstede’s model. The Qualitative Report, 20(11), 1794-1811.
Kim, M. (2007). Our culture, their culture and beyond: Further thoughts on ethnocentrism in Hofstede’s discourse. Journal of Multicultural Discourses, 2(1), 26-31. https://doi.org/10.2167/md051c.2
Kittler, M. G., Rygl, D., Mackinnon, A., & Wiedemann, K. (2011). Work role and work adjustment in emerging markets: A study of German expatriates in CEE countries and Russia. Cross Cultural Management, 18(2), 165-184. https://doi.org/10.1108/13527601111126003
Koren, M. (2014). Why Russians aren’t smiling at you in Sochi. National Journal. Retrieved from: http://www.nationaljournal.com
Kurtzberg, T. R., Naquin, C. E., & Belkin, L. Y. (2009). Humor as a relationship-building tool in online negotiations. International Journal of Conflict Management, 20(4), 377-397. 10.1108/10444060910991075
Larsen, H. G. (2014). The emerging Shanghai city brand: A netnographic study of image perception among foreigners. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 3(1), 18-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2013.12.003
Lauring, J. (2011). Intercultural organizational communication: The social organizing of interaction in international encounters. Journal of Business Communication, 48(3), 231- 255. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021943611406500
Li, M., Croucher, S., & Wang, M. (2020). Re-entry cultural adaptation of foreign-educated academics at Chinese universities. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 20(1), 1-16.
Lundquist, L. (2014). Danish humor in cross-cultural professional settings: Linguistic and social aspects. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 27(1), 141-163. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021943611406500
Luria, G., Cnaan, R. A., & Boehm, A. (2019). National Culture of Indulgence as Predictor of Prosocial Behavior: Governmental Effectiveness as Boundary Condition, Voluntas, 30, 1164–1175. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-019-00124-5
Master Russian. (2013). Russian Hospitality. Retrieved from http://masterrussian.com/russianculture/russian_hospitality.htm
Matsumoto, D. (2011). Reading faces: The universality of emotional expression. In Gernsbacher, M. A., Pew R.W., Hough, L.M. and Pomerantz J.R. (eds). Psychology and the Real World: Essays illustrating fundamental contributions to society. New York: Worth Publishers, pp. 140-146.
McSweeney, B. (2002). Hofstede’s model of national cultural differences and their consequences: A triumph of faith – a failure of analysis. Human Relations, 55(1), 89–118.
Morley, M., Burke, C., & Finn, G. (1999). Irish expatriates in Moscow: Exploratory evidence aspects of adjustment. In C. Brewster and H. Harris (Eds.), International HRM: Contemporary Issues in Europe (pp. 203-223). London: Routledge.
Morley, M., Burke, C., & O’Regan, R. (1997). The Irish in Moscow: A question of adjustment. Human Resource Management Journal, 7(3), 53-65.
Orr, L. M., & Hauser, W. J., (2008) A re-inquiry of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions: A call for 21st century cross-cultural research. The Marketing Management Journal, 18(2), 1-19.
Østergaard, U. (2006). Denmark: A big small state. In J. L. Campbell, J.A. Hall, & O. K. Pedersen (Eds.), National identity and the varieties of capitalism: The Danish experience. (pp. 51-98). Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
Parry, J (2003). Making sense of executive sensemaking: A phenomenological case study with methodological criticism. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 17(4), 240-263. https://doi.org/10.1108/14777260310494771
Paulus, T. M., Bichelmeyer, B., Malopinsky, L., Pereira, M. & Rastogi, P. (2005). Power
Paulus, T. M., Bichelmeyer, B., Malopinsky, L., Pereira, M., & Rastogi, P. (2005). Power distance and group dynamics of an international project team: A case study. Teaching in Higher Education, 10(1), 43-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/1356251052000305525
Peterson, M.F. (2008). The heritage of cross-cultural management research: Implications for the Hofstede chair in cultural diversity. In Peterson MF and Søndergaard, M (eds) Foundations of Cross-Cultural Management, Volume I. Los Angeles: Sage: 211-229.
Petukhov, V. V. (2007). The bureaucracy and ruling authority. Sociological Research, 46(6), 19-32. https://doi.org/10.2753/SOR1061-0154460603
Pikhart, M., & Koblizkova, A. (2017). The central role of politeness in business communication: The appropriateness principle as the way to enhance business communication efficiency. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 45. Retrieved from: http://immi.se/intercultural/nr45/pikhart.html
Piller, I. (2011). Intercultural communication: A critical introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Puffer, S. M., & McCarthy, D. J. (2011). Two decades of Russian business and management research: An institutional theory perspective. Academy of Management Perspectives, 25(2), 21-36. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMP.2011.61020800
Rapp, J. K., Bernardi, R. A., & Bosco, S. M. (2011). Examining the use of Hofstede's Uncertainty Avoidance construct in international research: A 25-Year Review. International Business Research, 4(1), 3-15. https://doi.org/10.5539/ibr.v4n1p3
Rehman, S., & Dzionek-Kozłowska, J. (2020). The Chinese and American students and the trolley problem: A cross-cultural study. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 20(2), 31-41.
Ruiz-Equihua, D., Romero, J., & Casalό, L. V. (2020). Better the devil, you know? The moderating role of brand familiarity and indulgence vs. restraint cultural dimension on eWOM influence in the hospitality industry. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 29(3): 310-328. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2019.1630698
Sedova, N.N. (2011). The leisure-time activity of citizens. Russian Education & Society, 53. Retrieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.2753/RES1060-9393530504?journalCode=mres20
Søndergaard, M. (2008). Hofstede’s consequences: A study of reviews, citations and replications. In Peterson M. F. and Søndergaard, M. (eds), Foundations of Cross-Cultural Management, Volume III. Los Angeles. Sage, 37-45.
Suutari, V. H. T. (1997). Finnish expatriate managers: Experiences of the implications of cross-cultural differences in leadership. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 28, 307-312.
Suutari, V.H.T. (1998). Leadership behavior in Eastern Europe: Finnish expatriates' experiences in Russia and Estonia. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 9(2), 235–258. https://doi.org/10.1080/095851998341071
Wasson, R. (2004) Going international: Getting the people dimension right. Engineering Management, April/May, 16-17.
West, B. (2011). Why invest in Denmark. Retrieved from Bridgewest Website: http://www.bridgewest.eu/article/why-invest-in-denmark
World Value Survey. (2017). World Value Survey. Retrieved from:www.worldvaluessurvey.org
Yi, J-S. (2018). Revisiting individualism-collectivism: A cross-cultural comparison among college students in four countries. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 47. Retrieved from: https://immi.se/intercultural/nr47/jung.html
Zając, J. (2013). Communication in global corporations: Successful project management via email. New York, NY, Peter Lang Publishing.