American University Students’ Apology Strategies: An Intercultural Analysis of the Effect of Gender

Ruba Fahmi Bataineh (1) , Rula Fahmi Bataineh (2)
(1) Associate Professor/ Assistant Dean of Education Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan , Jordan
(2) Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan , Jordan


This study aims at investigating potential gender effects in American university students’ use of apologies within the framework of the two-culture theory which claims that men and women are so different that they comprise strikingly different cultures. The researchers used a 10-item questionnaire based on Sugimoto’s (1997). The findings revealed that male and female respondents used the primary apology strategies of statement of remorse, accounts, compensation, and reparation. They also resorted to the use of non-apology strategies such as blaming victim and brushing off the incident as not important to exonerate themselves from blame. The findings further revealed that male and female respondents used the same primary strategies but in different frequencies. In addition, female respondents used fewer non-apology strategies than their male counterparts and more manifestations of the statement of remorse. Both similarities to and differences from Sugimoto’s findings were detected.

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Ruba Fahmi Bataineh (Primary Contact)
Rula Fahmi Bataineh
Bataineh, R. F., & Bataineh, R. F. (2005). American University Students’ Apology Strategies: An Intercultural Analysis of the Effect of Gender. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 5(2), 1–17.

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