Negotiation Styles - Similarities and Differences between American and Japanese University Students -

Linda Viswat (1), Junko Kobayashi (2)
(1) Otemon Gakuin University and Kansai Gaidai University-Japan, Japan,
(2) Otemon Gakuin University and Kansai Gaidai University-Japan, Japan


This paper discusses similarities and differences in negotiation styles between Americans and Japanese based on the results of questionnaires administered to 96 students in the United States and 102 students in Japan. Both in negotiations with a family member or a friend and in a business context, universal factors and those specific to American and Japanese cultures are identified. Although the essence of negotiation is universal, Americans and Japanese need to acquire different abilities in order to foster give-and-take relationships that will benefit both parties. It is essential for Americans to acquire the abilities: to listen attentively to what the other person says, and display a willingness to compromise by controlling emotions. On the other hand, it is indispensable for Japanese to acquire the abilities: to utilize logic and reasoning, and help others recognize points of disagreement by expressing their opinions clearly.

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Linda Viswat
Junko Kobayashi (Primary Contact)
Author Biographies

Linda Viswat, Otemon Gakuin University and Kansai Gaidai University-Japan

Linda Viswat is a professor at Otemon Gakuin University where she teaches courses in intercultural communication. Her research has focused on sojourner adjustment, learning strategies of Japanese university students, motivation, and the development of a learning community.

Junko Kobayashi, Otemon Gakuin University and Kansai Gaidai University-Japan

Junko Kobayashi is an associate professor at Kansai Gaidai University. She is the author of 9 English textbooks on intercultural communication.

Viswat, L., & Kobayashi, J. (2012). Negotiation Styles - Similarities and Differences between American and Japanese University Students -. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 12(1), 1–11.

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